Crop Information

The information presented below has been compiled by students in LFS 450, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, in partnership with: AgoraLFS Orchard GardenLFS Learning CentreSprouts – Healthy and Sustainable Food at UBCUBC Alma Mater Society, and UBC Farm.

 

Apples

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Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/28548387@N00/874613519/

According to popular belief, Sir Isaac Newton thought of the Universal Law of Gravitation when sitting under an apple tree and an apple fell on his head [3].

Apples are considered the most valuable food horticulture crop in BC, occupying 75% of BC's orchard land [7].

Scientific Names: Malus pumila and Malus domestica (part of the Rosaceae family) [4]


Cultivars grown at UBC Farm:

  • Adam’s Pearmain
  • Akane
  • Alexander
  • Ashmead’s Kernel
  • Belle de Boskoop
  • Blenheim Orange
  • Bramley’s Seedling
  • Carmeliter Reinette
  • Chehalis
  • Cornish Gilliflower
  • Cox’s Queen Pippin
  • Cox’s Orange Pippin
  • Dayton
  • Dolgo Crab
  • Duchess of Oldenburg
  • Epicure
  • Esopus Spitzenburg
  • Fameuse
  • Florina
  • Golden Russet
  • Gravenstein
  • Grimes Golden
  • Honeycrisp
  • Hudson’s Golden Gem
  • Jaegher’s Reinette
  • Jefferis
  • John Downie Crab
  • Jonafree
  • Jonathan
  • Kidd’s Orange Red
  • King of Tompkin’s County
  • Liberty
  • Lord Lambourne
  • Margil
  • Northern Spy
  • Nova Easygro
  • Oaken Pin
  • Orenco
  • Orin
  • Peasgood Nonsuch
  • Pitmaston Pineapple
  • Poppy’s Wonder
  • Priam
  • Prima
  • Priscilla
  • Pristine
  • Saint Edmund’s Pippin
  • Schmidtbergers Rote Reinette
  • Spartan
  • Spigold
  • Strathcona Russet (likely a Golden Russet)
  • Sundance
  • Transparent
  • Tydeman’s Late Orange
  • Vanderpool Red
  • Wealthy
  • Winesap
  • Winston
  • Wolf River
  • York Imperial


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: orchards put in at 2006, first production in fall of 2009


Apples are one of the fruits most widely grown around the world, but production is mainly concentrated in the Northern hemisphere. [1] They are grown in orchards, where the trees are cross-pollinated. Once apple flower blooms, beehives are placed in the field to ensure pollination [7]. Note that bees are very sensitive to pesticides, therefore spraying is prohibited during this period.

Apples do not grow well in areas of extreme temperature (very hot or very cold), requiring a combination of warm days and cool nights. Strong winds can blow blossoms and apples off of their trees. [1]

Once the fruits are well shaped, having developed juicy flesh and appropriate colour, they are ready to be harvested [7].


Apples of many different varieties are available all year round, but their peak season is from August to October, sometimes November [1][7].


Depending on cultivar, apples should be refrigerated at 1 to 4 Celsius [4], since low temperatures slow down ripening of the fruits. A relative humidity of about 90% is optimal for apple storage [1a]. This environment reduces moisture loss, slows down respiration rate, and supress growth of any possible growth of food-spoiling microorganisms. Note that misting may give bacteria and fungi chances to grow, therefore misting of apple should be avoided [1a].

Apples to be used for processing can be stored under controlled atmosphere storage at a modified atmosphere (2 – 3% oxygen and 1- 4% carbon dioxide); these can be stored for four to six months before being taken out from the fridge. Apples are then to be “normalized” for a few days before processing [2].


Important Nutrition Information

Apples are high in:

  • dietary fiber
  • potassium
  • phosphorus
  • calcium
  • ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 138 g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 72
Total Fat 0.24g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0g 0%
Sodium 1mg 3%
Total Carbohydrate 19g 6%
   Dietary Fiber 2.6g 10%
   Sugars 14g
Protein 360mg
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 64%
Calcium 0%
Iron 0%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [5][6]

Apple varieties used for different culinary uses:

  • Applesauce or Canning: Golden Delicious, Paula Red, Rhode Island, Greening and Spartan.
  • Baked: Braeburn, Gala, Gravenstein, Rome Beauty and York Imperial.
  • Pies: Granny Smith, Jonagold, Macintosh, Northern Spy, Romes and Winesap.
  • Raw: Baldwin, Braeburn, Cortland, Criterion, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Gravenstein, Jonagold, Jonathan, Lady Apple, Macoun, Macintosh, Newton Pippin, Northern Spy, Pink Lady, Red Delicious, Rhode Island Greening, Stayman, Winesap, and York Imperial.

Recipes and other culinary uses for apples are listed below:

  • LFS Orchard Garden, a site for learning and education, is located in the historic UBC apple orchard. The history of the garden inspired the garden's name.
  • UBC Farm planted an apple orchard in 2008. The orchard has many heritage varieties that are studied by several UBC courses.


  • The beehives at UBC farm aid in pollination of many crops, and are there for research and educational purpose. (Amy Frye, UBC Farm Marketing Coordinator, personal communication, April 6, 2010)
  • More Canadian breed cultivars can be viewed.

See CFIA- Apple for the complete list.

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Apples

Arugula.jpg

Arugula, also known as Rocket, is lettuce like vegetable with leaves similar in shape to radish leaves. It is native to the Mediterranean (2). The cultivation of arugula started in Roman times, but the domestication and commercial production of this plant started in the 1950s (2).

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: #

Arugula is a very fast growing plant and is generally able to be harvested after 4 weeks of planting (1). The plant prefers relatively more basic soil with pH of 6 to 6.8 but the tolerance of arugula allows it to thrive in many different soil conditions (1). Combining wide range of tolerance and the ability of self seeding, the plant may become invasive if not well controlled (1). Seeds of arugula may be planted in early spring when soil is cool (1). Seeds should be separated one inch apart and each row should be one feet to one and half feet apart (1). Ideal temperature for germination is between 4 to 14 C (3). Sprout time depends on temperature and generally ranges from 3 to 10 days (1).

Due to the low temperatures of germination, arugula is readily for harvest during mid spring and fall. Continued plantation of every 2 to 3 weeks ensures consistent supply during the growing season (3). The growing period is complete when the plant flowers (3).

Important Nutrition Information

  • Arugula is known as the "king of calcium" as it contains more calcium than kale (4).

Arugula is high in:

  • vitamin A (4)
  • vitamin C (4)
  • folate (4)
  • calcium (4)
  • magnesium (4)


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 100 g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 25
Total Fat 1g
   Saturated Fat 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0
Sodium 1%
Total Carbohydrate 1%
   Dietary Fiber 6%
   Sugars 1%
Protein 3%
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 25%
Calcium 15%
Iron 10%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Information based on the Canadian Nutrient File

Tomato Arugula Bruschetta

Ingredients

   * 20 roma (plum) tomatoes
   * 1/4 cup olive oil
   * 1/2 teaspoon salt
   * 1 teaspoon ground black pepper
   * 8 cloves garlic, minced
   * 1 bunch arugula - rinsed, dried and chopped
   * 20 sun-dried tomatoes packed in oil, drained and chopped
   * 3 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese


Directions

  1. Bring 4 quarts of water to boil in a large saucepan. Place the roma tomatoes in the boiling water for about 1 minute to loosen the skins. Drain, and rinse with cold water. Peel, core, seed, and coarsely chop.
  2. Heat the olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Slowly cook and stir the tomatoes with salt and pepper for 15 minutes.
  3. Stir in the garlic and cook 5 minutes. Stir the arugula into the mixture, then remove skillet from heat. Transfer mixture to a large bowl.
  4. Gently fold the sun-dried tomatoes and Parmesan cheese into the mixture. Cover and chill in the refrigerator approximately 4 hours before serving.

During the Roman time, arugula was used as green vegetable; its seeds were used to flavor oils and made into aphrodisiac mix (4). A recent study indicates the ability of arugula to cure ulcers as the herb contains anti-ulcer agents that reduce stomach acid and balance hormone activity (5).

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Arugula

Asparagus

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By: Afton Halloran http://www.flickr.com/photos/lfslearningcentre/3640110820/


Years grown at UBC Farm: 6 Planted LFS OG: 2010

Start by planting the seeds indoors between February and May; first soaking the seeds for two hours. Plant one seed 2 centimetres deep for every 5 centimetre pot; the soil temperature should be 21-30°C. Transport seedlings when they are 10-12 weeks old and when the frost is gone. Prepare the beds by digging deeply into well-drained soil that is preferably in an area fully exposed to the sun, or at the most partially shaded. Plant thicker spears 30-35 centimetres apart and 15-20 centimetres deep; plant thinner spears 20-25 centimetres apart and 10 centimetres deep. Space each row about one metre apart and gradually cover its crown with soil as it grows. Asparagus should not be harvested until the third year, and it should be done over a 2-3 week period. Asparagus are considered to be moderately difficult to grow, but can last for decades if well cared for. [1]

Lessons from UBC Farm:

  • Difficulty of Growing: 2 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)
  • Diligent weeding and patience are needed as it takes three years before harvesting (Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).

Asparagus grows best during the cool season and are generally harvested in the spring. [1]


Important Nutrition Information

Asparagus is source of:

  • dietary fiber
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250ml
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 28
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g 0%
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 5g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 3g 12%
   Sugars 3g
Protein 3g
Vitamine A 6%
Vitamine C 15%
Calcium 4%
Iron 20%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


% Daily Value based on a 2000 Calorie diet [2]

Information taken from the Canadian Nutrient File

Asparagus & Chicken Pasta [3]

Ingredients:

16 oz packet Pasta (e.g. Penne

8 each Asparagus Sprigs

4 each Chicken breasts, skinned

2 tsp. Olive oil

To taste Salt and pepper

½ cup Parmesan cheese

2 tsp. White wine


Instructions:

1. Cook the pasta in a pan of boiling water for about 8 minutes.

Meanwhile:

2. Trim the Asparagus, cut in to 2 inch pieces and set aside.

3. Cut the chicken in to strips, and fry in the oil over a medium heat. Cook for about 3 minutes.

4. Add the wine, cheese and seasoning to the chicken.

5. For the last 3 minutes of cooking, add the Asparagus pieces to the pasta.

6. Drain the pasta and asparagus. Toss with the chicken and serve.


Asparagus Strudel [4]

Ingredients: 12 oz (375 g) asparagus, trimmed

1 tbsp (15 mL) canola oil

2 shallots, finely chopped

2 cloves garlic, minced

3 oz (90 g) Swiss cheese, shredded

1/4 cup (50 mL) sour cream

salt and pepper

1/4 cup (50 mL) dry bread crumbs

1 tbsp (15 mL) freshly grated Parmesan cheese

6 sheets phyllo pastry

1/2 cup (125 mL) unsalted butter, melted


Roasted Red Pepper Sauce:

2 large roasted red peppers, seeded and peeled

1 tbsp (15 mL) chopped fresh basil


Instructions:

Strudel: Cut asparagus into 1/2-inch (1.25 cm) pieces; steam or simmer just until tender-crisp, about 3 minutes. Drain and pat dry. Place in large bowl. Heat oil in skillet over medium-high heat; cook shallots and garlic until softened, about 3 minutes. Cool slightly. Add to bowl. Add cheese, sour cream and salt and pepper to taste to bowl; mix well. In small bowl, combine bread crumbs and Parmesan cheese; set aside. Preheat oven to 350º F (180º C). Lightly grease baking sheet. Place one sheet of phyllo on clean work surface with long side closest to you, keeping remaining sheets covered with waxed paper and damp tea towel. Brush with melted butter; sprinkle with about 1 tbsp (15 mL) of the bread crumb mixture. Cover with another sheet of phyllo, butter and bread crumbs. Top with third sheet of phyllo; butter sheet. Cut in half crosswise to make 2 stacks. Place one-quarter of the filling along one short end of stack, leaving about 1 inch (2.5 cm) uncovered at each end. Roll phyllo up and over filling to completely enclose it. Fold long ends over toward filling; continue rolling strudel. Brush all over with butter. Transfer to prepared baking sheet; brush with butter. Repeat with remaining stack. Make 2 more strudels with remaining ingredients. (The strudels may be prepared to this point and frozen for up to 1 month; bake frozen.) Bake strudels for 30 to 35 minutes or until filling is heated through and pastry is golden brown.

Roasted Red Pepper Sauce: In food processor or blender, combine red peppers, basil and 1/4 cup (50 mL) of the vinegar; process until smooth. Taste and add more vinegar if desired. Pour into small saucepan and bring to simmer over low heat. Serve under or beside strudels. Prep time: 45 minutes, Cooking Time: 35 minutes, Yield: Serves 4

  • “Asparagus, Stinky Pee, and Scientific Curiosity” by Willow King

http://www.scq.ubc.ca/asparagus-stinky-pee-and-scientific-curiosity/

1) West Coast Seeds. (2010). How to Grow Asparagus. Retrieved from http://www.westcoastseeds.com/how-to-grow/Vegetable-Seeds/Asparagus/

2) Health Canada. (2009). Canadian Nutrient File. Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/report-rapport.do?lang=eng

3) Asparagus Recipes. (n.d.). Asparagus & Chicken Pasta recipe. Retrieved from http://www.asparagusrecipes.net/asparagus-chicken-pasta.html

4) Ontario Asparagus. (2007). Asparagus Strudel. Retrieved from http://www.asparagus.on.ca/recipe.php?id=45

5) Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. (2007). Asparagus. Retrieved from http://www.al.gov.bc.ca/aboutind/products/plant/aspargus.htm


  • In the past, it was believed that eating Asparagus before a meal would refresh and open the liver, spleen and kidney [5].
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Asparagus

Basil

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[1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 2010


Common Names: Common basil, St. Joseph Wort, and Sweet Basil, from the family Lamiaceae.


Species

  • Ocimum basilicum - Cinnamon, Green Ruffles
  • Ocimum x citriodorum; Ocimum minimum - Bush Basil, Greek basil
  • Ocimum basilicum - Napolitano
  • Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens - Purple Ruffles; Purple basil
  • Ocimum basilicum -Horapha
  • Ocimum tenuiflorum (sanctum)- Sacred Basil


Propagation:

All basil is able to be grown from seed. Either sew directly into pots, or plug trays in the early spring and germinate with warmth. Water well at midday in dry weather but be sure its not wet still by night or else root rot may occur. Once the seedlings are large enough to handle and withstand frost, you may plant them out into soil that is rich and is well drained in a warm and sheltered area (preferable at midday). Basil will thrive in hot weather and grows well in between tomato plants but the ideal spot for growing basil is in a kitchen windowsill and in pots on the patio.


Spring: sow seeds in early spring with warmth and be sure to look for damping-off; plant out at closer to the end of the season. Alternatively, sow directly into the ground after frosts.

Summer: continue to pinch out young plants to promote new leaf growth and to prevent flowering; harvest the leaves

Fall: collect the seed of the plants that were allowed to flower. Before the first frost, bring pots into the house and close to a windowsill. Dig up old plants and dig over the area prepared for new planting.

Basil is continually harvested throughout summer.


Storage

When harvesting, pick leaves when they are young and always from the top to encourage new growth. When freezing to store, brush olive oil on each side of the leaf to keep leaves from sticking to one another. When drying, be as fast as possible because basil leaves tend to be difficult to dry successfully. One of the most successful ways of storing basil is by infusing it in olive oil and vinegar: place in a nice jar and add some garnish to make a great holiday gift!

Important Nutrition Facts

Basil is a good source of the following:

  • vitamins:
  • minerals:


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 30 ml (5.4 g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 1
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g 0%
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 0g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 0g 0%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 0.1g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 0%
Calcium 0%
Iron 0%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

Pasta with Brie, Basil and Tomatoes (serves 8)


Ingredients

  • 5 tomatoes, cored and roughly chopped or 2 cups halved cherry or grape tomatoes
  • 3 cloves garlic, thinly sliced
  • 
8 ounces brie, with rind, or other semi-soft cheese such as Fontina, cut into (1-inch) pieces 

  • 1/2 cup olive oil 
3 to 4 tablespoons balsamic vinegar 

  • Salt and pepper to taste 

  • 1 pound whole wheat penne 

  • 1 cup basil leaves, torn


Method

  • Put tomatoes, garlic, brie, oil, vinegar, salt and pepper into a large bowl and toss gently to combine. Cover and set aside at room temperature to let marinate for 2 to 3 hours. 

Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. Add penne and cook until al dente, about 10 minutes. Drain well and transfer hot pasta to bowl with tomato mixture. Add basil and toss gently to combine. Serve immediately


Information not available

Information not available


Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp

Information not available

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Basil

Beet

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[1]

Common name: Beet

Scientific name: Beta vulgaris

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: Not Available

Beets grow in most soil conditions; however, the most optimal pH of soil for beet to grow is between 6.5 to 7.5. [2] Beets perform the best in full sun and fertile, friable garden soil, with regular water and light fertilization. [3]

  • Soil pH: Neutral
  • Soil Drainage: Well Drained
  • Soil type: Loam, Sand
  • Growth Rate: Very Fast
  • Sun Exposure: Full Sun
  • Water Requirements: Average Water
  • Habit: Rosette/Stemless
  • Seasonal Interest: Spring, Summer, Fall

Beet is a biennial, cool-season crop, and it grows the best in the cooler temperatures of late winter to early spring, and usually are harvested by late spring to early summer. [2]

Important Facts

  • The roots of beet are rich in the nutrient betaine, and it also contributes to the deep red color of the beetroots. Betaine may reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, and might be benifical to people who have and liver disease.[4]

Beets are high in:

  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • dietary fiber
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250 mL (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 62
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0.039g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g 0%
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 13.74g 1%
   Dietary Fiber 2.7g 12%
   Sugars 9.71g
Protein 2.31g
Vitamine A 3%
Vitamine C 12%
Calcium 2%
Iron 8%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutritional Infomation from Canadian Nutrient File (CNF)

Borscht

Serves 8-10

Ingredients:

  • 2 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 large white onion, chopped
  • 3 cups beets, chopped
  • 1 cup carrots, chopped
  • 3 stalks celery, chopped
  • 3 cups cabbage, shredded
  • 3 Tbs oil
  • ½ cup tomato juice
  • 2 Tbs lemon juice
  • 10 cups vegetable stock
  • 1 bunch dill, chopped
  • 2 bay leaves
  • salt & pepper

Method:

  • Sauté onion in 1 Tbs oil until golden and soft. Set aside.
  • In a big soup pot, sauté carrots, celery, and cabbage in 2 Tbs oil for 3 minutes. Add bay leaf, basil, beets and stock and simmer until beets are slightly tender, about 30 minutes.
  • Add lemon juice, tomato juice, dill, onions, salt and pepper. Adjust seasoning to taste.
  • Serve with a dollop of sour cream or thick plain yogurt on top.


Recipe of Borscht is provided by UBC Agora Cafe

Not Available

  • Planting: Sow outdoors late April to mid-July on the Coast. Beets will not produce roots if planted when the soil is too cold.
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Beet

Blueberry

"2231159_bdb62aa4cf.jpg"

Source: [1]


Common Name: Blueberry

Scientific Name: Vaccinium angustifoliium Ait. or Vaccinium corymbosum L. [3]


Native to North America, blueberries are commonly found as either the

  • lowbush (V. angustifolium Ait.) – grown primarily in Marine and eastern Canada
  • high bush (V. corymbosum L.) – commercially grown in large quantities in New Jersey and Michigan
  • half-high bush - cross of lowbush and highbush [3]

British Columbia is the largest producer of cultivated highbush blueberries in Canada [3]. Common cultivars include: Bluecrop, Blueray, Jersey, Northland, Patriot, Lowbush Blueberries, and Half-high blueberries.


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: planted in 2009, no production yet


Blueberries love sunshine but tolerate partial shade, although more shade gives fewer blossoms, and thus less fruit production [3].

Soil should be well drained, loose, and high in organic matter content. There should be good drainage, because roots are fine and will suffocate if they are kept in water-saturated soil for a few days [2]. Low lying locations should be avoided because of its being prone to frost and poorly drained. For example, clay soil has poor drainage, and thus is non-suitable for blueberries [2].

Acidic soil is critical for the plants. The optimal pH is around 4.2 - 5.0, though blueberry plants may tolerate up to pH 5.5. If the original pH is within 5.0 to 6.5, sulphur can acidify the soil, reducing soil pH. However, if the soil pH is greater than 6.5, sulphur cannot acidify the soil to reduce pH. Such soil is therefore not suitable for blueberry production [2].

High bush blueberry plants should be planted 1.0 – 1.5 m apart in rows. Greater aisle distance may be needed for machinery [2]. Special care is needed for watering, bird control, frost protection, and bacterial disease [2], while pruning may stimulate growth and increase yield for next year's production. [2]

Blueberries are available usually in mid season (late spring to late summer, peaking in July and August) [3].

Blueberries are a long-term crop with a life span around 20 years. Berries can be harvested 3-4 years after planting, but will only reach full production after more than 8 years [2].


  • Blueberries are a source of dietary fiber
  • Blueberries are one of the fruits with highest antioxidant activity, which can neutralize free radicals that can cause cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease [7].
  • Blueberries are good sources of antioxidants – retards aging, reduce cell damage (cause of cancer), cardiovascular disease, loss of brain function [1].
  • Blueberries contain tannins, which prevents urinary tract infections [1].
  • Blueberries contain anthyocyanin (blue pigment in blueberries), which reduces eyestrain [1]
  • Blueberries are excellent sources of vitamin C, beneficial to eyesight and memory, and good sources of dietary fibre [7].
  • Blueberries are an excellent source of manganese, which aids development of bones and metabolism of protein, carb and fat.


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 153 g (1 cup)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 87
Total Fat 0.51g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g 0%
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 2mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 22g 8%
   Dietary Fiber 4g 16%
   Sugars 15.3g
Protein 1g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 44%
Calcium 0%
Iron 0%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [4][6]

Beverages:

Beverage Recipesfrom BC Blueberry Council

Breakfast:

Breakfast Recipesfrom BC Blueberry Council


Products

  • Commercially packed fresh – freshly packed into boxes and graded for stores, restaurants, cafes, bakeries and shipping internationally
  • Processed - frozen, puree, juice, dried, freeze dried, powder and infused

Food processing companies pack 55% of total production for bakery and dairy, fruit filling, canned berries, frozen berries, jam, juices and concentrate, purees, dried blueberries [1]


Storage

  • Berries are best consumed fresh.
  • For household storage methods, pick out the moldy or crushed berries, eat the ripened (softest) fruits, and leave the rest of the berries unwashed in shallow pans lined with paper towel. Plastic wrap and refrigerate [5]

Selection

  • Select blueberries that are dry, firm, with smooth skin. Darker colour indicates ripeness. Choose according to personal preference (for sweetness or tangy taste) [5]


  • UBC Farm is currently experimenting with growing blueberries in different soil conditions to better understand the effects of soil conditions on the nutritional value of the berries.
  • 3. Camire, M.E. (2002) Chapter 3. Phytochemicals in the Vaccinium Family: Bilberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries. In Phytochemicals in Nutrition and Health. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from CRCnetbase: www.crcnetbase.com
  • 7. US Highbush Blueberry Council (2010) US highbush blueberry council. Retrieved on March 25 2010 at http://www.blueberry.org/
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Blueberry

Broccoli

"862036019_1e39c13085.jpg"

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jdickert/862036019/

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: ten/two

Successful growth requires moderately fertile, moist, non-acidic soil; ideally with high amounts of nitrogen and calcium. Like all vegetables, all-day sunshine is preferred; however, broccoli and its close relatives are known for their tolerance to both frost and cool cloudy weather. Seeds may be sown indoors and later transplanted for an early harvest or outdoors (direct seeding) for a later harvest.

To sow seeds indoors, begin by placing three to five seeds one and half cm deep in a small container of potting soil. Sprout the seeds at about 30 C, then grow under lights at about 20C for two to three weeks. Thin to one seedling per container by the time one true leaf has developed. Then transfer to a cold frame (a wood frame with a glass or plastic lid) once plants have two true leaves. When the seedlings have developed three true leaves they may transplanted outside. Use hot caps (made from translucent two liter plastic jugs) to protect seedlings initially.

Sowing seeds outdoors is a simpler process, start by placing clusters of four to five seeds one and half cm deep in well fertilized soil 50 to 60cm apart. Thin to keep the best seedling per cluster, complete thinning by the time three true leaves have developed. Growing broccoli to edible size requires that the soil moisture be kept above 70% at all times and that there be no lack of soil nutrients. Thus, fertilizing with a complete fertilizer through the growing season may be needed. A recipe for a complete organic fertilizer suitable for coastal BC is given below:

Four parts seed meal (cottonseed or canola meal) Half part lime Half part phosphate rock or bone meal Half part seaweed meal If the above recommendations are followed, then pests are generally not a problem (Solomon, 2000).


Since there are two main types of broccoli: Italian, harvested in the summer/fall and over- wintering, harvested in the spring, fresh broccoli can be enjoyed for much of the year.

To be eating broccoli in June one must sow their seeds indoors early in February and transplant them outside by late March. Alternatively, one can sow their seeds outside directly starting in early April and into early July. This allows a potential harvest to begin in July and continue into October.

Overwintering broccoli should be sown in late July to early August allowing for harvest from March to May (Solomon, 2000).

Broccoli justifies special recognition for its many nutritional benefits, recent studies have found many health benefits associated with its consumption. Phytonutrients, such as sulforaphanes and indoles, present in broccoli have been proven to have cancer-fighting properties. Furthermore, broccoli consumption is known to support stomach health, strengthen bones, prevent heart disease, boost the immune system, and help prevent cataracts.

To get the maximum health benefits from broccoli, eat it lightly steamed or raw rather than boiled or microwaved. When selecting broccoli look for florets with dark green, blue-green, or purple-green color and tightly closed buds. Avoid any limp or hallow stalks.

Fresh broccoli should be stored unwashed (wetness promotes spoilage) in an open plastic bag in the fridge, it will keep for about a week. Broccoli can also be stored for up to a year if blanched and then frozen. Excess cooked broccoli should stored in a air-tight container in the fridge, it will keep for several days (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250 g (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 32
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g 0%
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 31mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 6g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 9%
   Sugars 1.6g
Protein 2.6g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 140%
Calcium 4%
Iron 5%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Note: Nutritional information derived from data provided by Health Canada.

Miso Stir-Fry

Miso is a great way to extra flavor and nutrition to your dish at the same time. This versatile stir-fry recipe can be adapted to any of your favorite vegetables or whatever you may have on hand— in fact the more variety, the more nutritional value. Enjoy!

Prep and Cook Time: 25 minutes Ingredients:

1 TBS dried hijiki* or arame seaweed, soaked* in 3/4 cup warm water (save water)

1 medium onion, cut in half and sliced thick

1 TBS minced fresh ginger

3 cloves garlic, pressed

1 medium sized carrot, peeled and sliced very thin

2 cups small broccoli florets, about 1/2-inch pieces

1 cup shredded green cabbage

4 oz firm light tofu, cut into 1/2-inch cubes

2 TBS light miso

2 TBS tamari (soy sauce)

2 TBS rice vinegar

salt and white pepper to taste

1 tsp toasted sesame seeds

  • For more on safety issues regarding sea vegetables, see The safety factors regarding sea vegetables, such as hijiki

Directions: Chop onion and press garlic and let sit for 5-10 minutes to bring out their health-promoting benefits. Rinse and soak hijiki or arame seaweed in about 3/4 cup hot water, and chop rest of the vegetables. After about 10 minutes squeeze hijiki to remove excess water. Save the water. Heat 1TBS of seaweed water in a stainless steel wok, or large skillet. Healthy Stir-Fry onion and carrots in seaweed water over medium-high heat, for 2 minutes, stirring constantly. Add garlic and ginger. Continue to stir constantly. Ginger may stick a little to the pan. Don't worry about it. It will come up when liquid is added. After about 2 minutes add broccoli. Stir-fry for another 2 minutes. Add cabbage, miso dissolved in 2 TBS seaweed water, tamari, rice vinegar, hijiki or arame, and tofu. Continue stir-frying for another 2 minutes, stirring constantly. Add salt and pepper. Sprinkle with sesame seeds and serve. Serves 6 Serving Suggestions:

Serve with Brown Rice Healthy Cooking Tips:

Make sure your vegetables are cut and ready before you start to stir-fry. By slicing your carrots thin and cutting broccoli into small florets they will cook al dente-soft outside and crisp inside. Also, the cabbage will start to release water and dilute the flavor of your dish if you cook it too long. Slicing it thin and only cooking it for a couple minutes prevents it from releasing excess liquid (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).


Steamed Broccoli and Kale

A super simple side dish to compliment any meal.

Prep and Cook Time: 10 minutes

Ingredients:

1 Large broccoli head 6 Medium kale leaves

Directions: Lightly steam chopped broccoli and kale. Season with nutritional yeast and lemon juice.

Serves 4

Commercially made broccoli extracts are available for use as an immune enhancer. Its use is recommended for those with weakened immune systems such as smokers and cancer patients (Farmvita, 2008).

Broccoli sprout extract may be used in future sunscreen products as recent research has shown it protects the skin from ultraviolet radiation (Naturalnews, 2010).


The use of over-winter cover crops with overwintering broccoli was studied at the UBC farm during the winter of 2004/2005. Cover crops benefit the soil by reducing erosion and retaining nutrients otherwise lost to leaching due to rain. Unfortunately, these benefits come with costs… Broccoli suffered from disease during the spring due to humid condition brought on by being crowded by the cover crops. This study highlights some of the challenges of growing overwintering broccoli in our wet climate (Rekken & Bomke, 2005).

Buck, P.A. (1956). Origin and Taxonomy of Broccoli. Economic Botany, 250-253. doi: 10.1007/BF02899000

Famavita. (2010). Broccoli Extract. Retrieved from http://www.farmavita.net/content/view/54/5

Naturalnews. (2008). Broccoli Juice Proven to Protect Skin Better than Sunscreen

       Retrieved from http://www.naturalnews.com/023250_broccoli_cancer_sunscreen.html


Rekken, G. & Bomke, A. (2005). The UBC Farm Cover-up Cover-cropping with over- winter broccoli, that is. BC Organic Grower, 7-8. Retrieved from

       http://www.certifiedorganic.bc.ca/publications/bcog/issues/Vol8N3.pdf

Solomon, S. (2000). Growing vegetables west of the Cascades : the complete guide to natural gardening. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books

The World's Healthiest Foods. (2010). Broccoli. Retrieved from http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=9

  • Broccoli, also known as Brassica oleracea Italica, has a long history of cultivation. Some 2000 years ago the first precursors to modern broccoli were recorded in Greek history. Members of the Brassica genus originated from wild cabbage native to coastal Europe. The Brassica genus also includes mustard greens, rutabaga, cabbage, cauliflower, brussel sprout, turnip, kale, kohlrabi, and others.
  • Broccoli has been popular in Italy for most of its history, Italian Americans popularized it in North America around 1920. Its nutritional benefits were also recognized around this time through developmental studies on rats; this too helped to popularize this vegetable (Buck, 1956).

Lessons from the UBC farm:

  • Difficulty of Growing: 3 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)
  • Start indoors to allow for early maturation as broccoli does not cope well with hot weather typical of late summer. Clubroot, a fungal disease affecting the roots of Brassicas, is easily spread through contaminated compost so avoid using compost from unknown sources. If clubroot becomes a problem do not plant any Brassicas for at least four years (Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Broccoli

Butter lettuce

1106487847_6b60aa65e8.jpg

Source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 2

  • Try watering
  • Sunshine is good


  • Summer


  • Roquefort Salad


  • Keep in wet paper towel


  • Sage Bistro uses this for a great summer salad
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Butter_lettuce

Cabbage

"2302667023_7ca5dd2870.jpg"

http://www.flickr.com/photos/29814800@N00/2302667023/

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG:

Cabbages grow best in well-drained, fertile soil that contains a lot of organic matter with a pH of 6.0 to 7.5. Try to keep the soil warm (10-30˚C or 50-85˚F) until germination and keep the cabbage plants around 15˚C/60˚F. Before planting cabbages, mix 1 cup of organic fertilizer under each plant. After 4-6 weeks, transplant the cabbage plants into the garden 60-100 cm (24 to 36 inches) apart and provide consistent watering. Side-dressing the plant with fertilizer will also help it grow faster. Allow cabbages to receive full sun exposure; otherwise its yield will be reduced.

Each type is grown slightly different [3].

  • Early: Similar to broccoli, they can be packed close, about 18 inch centers. Direct-seeded early types take about 3 months to mature. These can be set out as transplants in mid-March. From April to the end of June, they can be direct seeded [3]. To avoid head splitting of early varieties due to over maturity, rapid growth after heavy rain/excess watering, or irrigation after a dry spell, the plant should be twisted or cultivated deeply next to the plants to break roots and slow growth. It is best to purchase early hybrids that promise to hold in the field without bursting [3]. Generally, the early varieties tend to be the most cumbersome to grow because it requires the best soil and the most protection from root eating insects [3].
  • Mid-season: These are best spaced on 24 inch centers [3].
  • Late: Usually grown on 24 inch centers, and for big heads or a few “giant” varieties, 30 inches might be more appropriate. This is also grown like broccoli. For this type to grow up to its maximum size, space them 30-36 inches apart in rows 4-5 feet apart. It usually take 120 days or more to mature and it is usually sown in June and harvested at the end of September [3].
  • Over wintering: These can be sown in early September [3]. This facilitates the seedlings to grow to their hardiest size – 6-8 inches in diameter, before winter’s chill and low light levels inhibits their growth [3]. In spring, side-dress them heavily with fertilizer to make it go through a growth spurt phase such that good heads will be formed in April or May [3].

Diseases

  • Purple Blotch [1]

To prevent purple blotch, avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water the plants earlier in the day so the plants above the ground dry as quickly as possible. Allow for air circulation by removing weeds around plants and garden area and give the plants optimum space to grow. When plants are not wet, remove and destroy affected plant parts.

  • Club root [1]

If the soil is infested with clubroot, add lime to raise soil pH to 7.2. Relocate the plant to a new location, if that’s not possible, remove the infested soil and replace with fresh soil. If necessary, remove and discard or destroy entire infested plant and its surrounding soil and soil clinging to the roots.

Pests

  • Flea beetles, cabbage root maggot, and cabbage worms are indications of early pest damage [1]. These pests can be prevented by controlling weeds and utilizing floating row covers at the time of planting [1]. Before the temperatures get too hot in midsummer, the row covers needs to be removed [1]. Cutworms can be prevented by controlling weeds and utilizing cardboard collars around each plant [1]. Remove aphids from plants by blasting it with a hard stream of water; aphids are indicated by the presence of gray-brown or bloated parasitized aphids and alligator like larvae of lady beetles and lacewings [1]. Lastly, crop rotation can be used to minimize pest build up [2].

Harvesting

  • Cabbages are ready to be harvested when it feels firm, and the interior is fairly dense [1]. It is harvested by cutting near the base with a few outer leaves left for protection [2]. The early type tends to burst quickly after heading up and the late type head up when lower light levels and chilly conditions prevent growth, and they’ll usually hold through the winter but these tend to have tough, dry leaves [3].

Cabbage grows best during the cool season [1].

The best time to plant the seeds are summarized as follows [1]:

  • Summer Cabbage: Indoors/outdoors, start Mar-mid June. Harvest in 2-3 months.
  • Fall Cabbage: Indoors/outdoors, mid May-early June. Harvest in 3-4 months.
  • Winter Cabbage: Indoors/outdoors, May-early June. Harvest all winter in mild winter areas.
  • Overwinter Cabbage: Indoors, mid-July; to transplant in mid August. Harvest the following spring.

Note: fall and winter varieties tend to stand in the garden longer without splitting.


Early varieties: Grows on tight spacings, these grows fast and tend to be smaller in size. They lack cold tolerance compared to the late varieties. This type of variety is available in American supermarkets from November through July. which are grown in the South. These tend not to store well and won’t hold long in the autumn.

  • Examples of early open pollinated varieties are Jersey Wakefield and Golden Acre. These are small, green, round headed cabbages, with pale yellow white centers.

Mid-season varieties: A slightly slower maturing early type but tend to be larger in size [3].

Late varieties: Usually grown for making kraut or for storage [3].

Over wintering varieties: A gambler’s crop [3]. Unpredictable variations in fall weather can make big difference in their growth rate – thus, it is a gamble to yield decent cabbages [3]. If they are too small when winter comes, they will freeze out; if too big, they’ll bolt in spring without heading [3]. Ultimately, overwintering cabbages are most suitable to make small heads such that final spacing may be 18 by 18 inches [3].

Cabbages are 90% water and it is an excellent source of minerals, vitamin A and C and the B vitamins [2].

The following nutrition facts is based on raw cabbage.

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 100 g (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 24
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g 0%
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 18mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 6g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 8%
   Sugars 4g
Protein
Vitamine A 15%
Vitamine C 50%
Calcium 4%
Iron 4%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Note: Nutritional information derived from data provided by Health Canada.

Cabbage is available in all sorts of varieties such as napa cabbage, savoy cabbage, red cabbage, Early Jersey Wakefield, bok choy, etc. Cabbage is often used as a pickled dish, but it tastes great as a cooked dish, too. Below are some recommended recipes:

140_1_296.jpg

Source

Add vibrant color to your main dish with this salad - a combination of beet root and red cabbage dressed in red wine vinegar, Dijon mustard, olive oil and garlic.

23219340_22f1ba951d.jpg

Source

Instead of eating sauerkraut, try kimchi - Korea's national side dish. This fermented napa cabbage smothered in hot red pepper flakes dish is rich with vitamins, high in fibre, low in fat, and loaded with lactic acid bacteria, the same bacteria found in yogurt that aids in digestion. Kimchi can be eaten alone or be used as an ingredient for other recipes, such as pancakes, fried rice, noodles, stew, etc.

Hot slaw isn't just the spicy version of coleslaw, it's coleslaw served warm with crisp bits of bacon minus the mayonnaise.

Select the colourful variety of cabbages to grow as a means of brightening up the garden [2].

Red cabbage can be used as a natural blue dye for Easter eggs [4]. This can be made by bringing the eggs to a boil in water with a small amount of vinegar and red cabbage. Allow the eggs to simmer for at least 15 minutes in the dye concoction.

Red cabbage can also be used as a pH indicator of everyday products to determine if it is acidic, neutral or basic based on its change in color [5].

Cabbage juice can be a home remedy for ulcers [6].

None apart from its educational value as a crop that can be observed growing throughout the year.

[1] West Coast Seeds. (2010). How to grow cabbage. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from http://www.westcoastseeds.com/how-to-grow/Vegetable-Seeds/Cabbage/

[2] Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. (2007). Cabbage. Retrieved from March 20, 2010 from http://www.al.gov.bc.ca/aboutind/products/plant/cabbage.htm

[3] Solomon, S. (5th Ed.). (2000). Growing vegetables west of the cascades: the complete guide to natural gardening. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books.

[4] Sleeth, N. (2009). Go green, save green: a simple guide to saving time, money, and god’s green earth. Nashville, TN: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

[5] Toedt, J., Koza, D., Cleef-Toedt, & K.V. (2005). Chemical composition of everyday products. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

[6] Grotto, D. (2007). 101 foods that could save your life. New York, NY: Random House, Inc.

  • Its Latin name is Brassica oleracea var. capitata; it belongs to the Brassicaceae Family. The English name derives from the French/Norman caboche (“head”) and its dense core is called the ‘babchka’ [1]. This vegetable is also related to turnip, broccoli, kale and collards [1].
  • Currently, China and India are the largest producers of cabbage [1]. In BC, cabbage is grown commercially in the Lower Mainland, on Vancouver Island and in many locations in the interior [2]. BC grows green, red, and savoy cabbages. The green cabbage is the primary type sold at the markets because it makes up 80% of the cabbage grown [2].
  • Avoid cooking cabbages in aluminum pans to keep the smell down [1].
  • Select cabbages without discoloured veins and look for stems that are healthy-looking, closely trimmed, and are not dry or split [6]. Cut cabbage can be stored in the refrigerator in a plastic bag with holes in it, but use as soon as possible to retain its freshness [1].
  • Cabbages grows well with the following plants: basil, beets, bush beans, chamomile, celery, chard, dill, garlic, grapes, hyssop, larkspur, lettuce, marigold, mint, nasturtium, onion, rosemary, rue, sage, southern wood, spinach, thyme, and tomato [1].
  • In Russia, cabbage is considered to be its national food. Russians eat about seven times as much cabbage as we do on average [1].
  • In 1865, William Collingwood, from County Durham, England, grew the world’s largest cabbage which weighed 123 pounds [1].
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Cabbage

Carrot

5073435680_23e157efb8.jpg

Source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: Not Available

Carrots grow best when cultivated in deep, rich, friable loamy soil and full sun. They are easy to grow if given the right growing conditions and can be stored for long periods of time. Generally, they require 50 to 75 days to harvest. [2]

  • Soil pH: Neutral
  • Soil Drainage: Well Drained
  • Soil type: Loam, Sand
  • Growth Rate: Fast
  • Sun Exposure: Full Sun
  • Water Requirements: Average Water
  • Habit: Clump-Forming
  • Seasonal Interest: Summer, Fall

Season: Cool season

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250 g (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 55
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 112mg 5%
Total Carbohydrate 12.96g 5%
   Dietary Fiber 3.3g 14%
   Sugars 6.14g
Protein 1.26g
Vitamine A 81%
Vitamine C 13%
Calcium 4%
Iron 3%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutritional Infomation from Canadian Nutrient File (CNF)

Vegan Minestrone


  • 7.5 kg of dried beans (chick peas or black beans preferably)

Precook

  • 20 T olive oil
  • 20 heads minced garlic
  • 10 kg chopped tomatoes
  • 5 lb diced onion
  • 15 lb potato
  • 10 lb carrot

Saute for about 10 min

  • 30 L stock

Add and bring to a boil

  • 5 kg chopped spinach (or chard if still from UBC Farm)
  • 10 T balsamic vinegar
  • 5 tsp chilli flakes
  • 10-15 T basil
  • 7 T oregano

Add above and beans. Simmer until all is cooked. Add:

  • 3 T pepper
  • 3 T salt
  • nutritional yeast to taste (15-20 T)

Recipe of Vegan Minestrone is provided by UBC Agora Cafe

Not Available

Not Available

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Carrot

Cauliflower

"2396095999_12e315fa6b.jpg"

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/57833357@N00/2396095999/


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 10


Before the end of spring, allow the seedlings to germinate indoors 4 to 6 weeks at 7˚C to 29˚C (45˚F to 85˚F) [1]. It will take 4 to 7 days for sprouts to emerge [1]. Once the outside soil temperature is at least 10˚C (50˚F), the seedlings can be transplanted outdoors [1]. The plant itself requires full sun exposure to achieve optimum yield [1]. In order for cauliflower to form into a decent curd (the white flower portion of the plant), it needs to grow quickly in the beginning [2].

It is best to use soil that is well drained, fertile and contains high amount of organic matter, with a pH of 6.0 to 7.5 [1]. It should be watered generously on a consistent basis [1]. If a slow growth is observed, low nitrogen fertilizer can be applied to the surface of soil [1]. However, do not use low nitrogen fertilizer in excess because this will result in hollow stems [1].

Blanching

  • If white varieties are being grown, cover the forming curd with one of its large leaf to protect it from the sun; this is called blanching [1]. If the curd is exposed to too much sunlight, its color will change from white to yellowish [2].

Transplanting

  • Put seeds about 1/2 cm deep in sterile starting mix [1]. Separate seedlings into individual 8 cm (3”) pots after 3 weeks [1]. After 5-8 weeks, the plant should have 4-8 leaves; this indicates it is ready to be planted in the garden and it should be sown deeper 1/2" to 3/4” deep) into the soil, and about 45 cm (18”) apart [1].

Direct Seeding

  • Place 3-4 seeds in each desired spot when the temperature is above 10˚C [1]. To grow large curds, use wide spacings; hence, smaller spacings will produce smaller curds [1]. For example, space 45-60 cm (18-24”) apart in rows 45-60cm apart [1, 2].

Note: If small heads are produced, this indicates that the plant is under stress [2].

Harvesting

  • Once the curd starts forming, check the plant everyday [1] because it can go from being a nubbin to being overblown in a week to 10 days [2]. The plant can be cut when the florets are just beginning to separate because this indicates that the flavour is fully developed and the size is at its maximum [1].

The disease and insect problems of cauliflower or other Cole crops can be reduced via crop rotation more than once every 3-4 years [1].

Diseases

  • The common disease problems of cauliflower are similar to cabbage [1]. Mulch can be used to protect the roots, reduce weed competition and conserve moisture [1].

Pests

  • The early varieties, tends to be more sensitive to root maggots because of its shallow roots [2]. Floating row covers can be used help protect from early insect infestations [1].

Cauliflower grows best during the cool season [1]. Thus, it is best to grow from early March to mid June [1]. Overwintering cauliflower is easier to grow, but the main risk that affects its yield is how cold the winter will be [2].

Cauliflower is high in B6 vitamins, folate, vitamin C, and it is a source of dietary fibre [1].

The following nutrition facts is based on raw cauliflower.

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 50 g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 100g (raw)
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg
Sodium 30mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 5g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 8%
   Sugars 2g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 80%
Calcium 2%
Iron 0%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Note: Nutritional information derived from data provided by Health Canada.

This vegetable can generally be incorporated into any type of dish. It can be fried, stir-fried, steamed, sauteed, roasted, baked, mashed or simply eaten raw. Below are some recommended recipes:


curriedcauliflower.jpg

This simple veggie recipe pairs well as a side dish and its combination of turmeric imparts a distinct flavor to it. One serving of this dish is loaded with vitamins - it provides 181% DV for vitamin C, 46% DV for vitamin K, and 33% DV for folate.


4885_1_296.jpg

At first glance, these cauliflower fritters may be mistaken for being scraps of fried bits. But these are actually florets that are basked in a cayenne pepper and parmesan batter prior to be fried golden brown. This is served with a rich greek yogurt dip seasoned with lemon juice, and garlic. To add some kick to the dip, try a dash of cayenne pepper.


1238_1_296.jpg

An exceptionally tasty and cheesy baked cauliflower dish that can be a lighter substitute to macaroni cheese. To add some green vegetables to this dish, try broccoli.


3316_1_296.jpg

A spicy Indian recipe packed with hotness and the sweetness of coconut cream. Serve with naan, because this is finger-licking good.

  • Biotin, a water soluble vitamin found in cauliflower has been linked to controlling dandruff and it also helps thicken nails, which reduces splitting and cracking [3].
  • Munching on raw cauliflower before bed may help stop jaw-clenching while sleeping [3].

At UBC, it played a role in an inconclusive biofertilizer study several years ago.

[1] West Coast Seeds. (2010). How to grow cauliflower. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from http://www.westcoastseeds.com/product/Vegetable-Seeds/Cauliflower

[2] Solomon, S. (5th Ed.). (2000). Growing vegetables west of the cascades: the complete guide to natural gardening. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books.

[3] Grotto, D. (2007). 101 foods that could save your life. New York, NY: Random House, Inc.

  • Cauliflower, also known as Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, belongs to the Brassicaceae (mustard) Family. Though part of its name is flower, it is not a flower. Cauliflowers are actually a bunch of stems.
  • Cauliflower first originated from Cyprus, and then it spread across Europe. Currently, China and India are the largest producers of this crop, and in Europe, Spain is the biggest grower. In the US, California is the primary producer.
  • An orange cauliflower, developed in Canada, contains 25 times the level of vitamin A of the regular white varieties [1]. This is called the orange “cheddar” cauliflower and its color indicates that it contains high levels of beta-carotene [1].
  • “Purple cauliflower” is actually a cauliflower/broccoli cross; it tastes more like broccoli but looks like cauliflower [2].
  • To pick a decent cauliflower, select firm, compact, creamy, white heads with florets bunched closely together and its leaves should be bright green and crisp [2]. If it has a yellow tinge, this indicates over maturity [2].
  • To retain the freshness of cauliflower during storage, refrigerate it unwashed and store it in a plastic bag with its head turned downwards [3]. By doing so, this will avoid moisture build up and rapid spoiling [3].
  • Cauliflower grows well with the following plants: basil, bean, dill, garlic, hyssop, lettuce, marigold, mint, onion, rosemary, sage, and thyme [1].

Lessons from UBC Farm

  • Difficulty of Growing: 4 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)
  • Similar to growing broccoli but more challenging, stressed plants produce very small heads (Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Cauliflower

Chard

"2812546546_75ea908748.jpg"

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/51314692@N00/2812546546/

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: #

  • Chard likes to be grown on ordinary garden soil in sun or partial shade. It can be grown almost all temperatures, except for extreme cold or hot conditions

To sow chard, draw a row or line in the bed soil no more than 2.5cm (1inch) deep. It is important to sow thinly so they have room to establish. When chard have two or more leaves, thin the leaves to 5cm for small leaves, and 10cm apart for larger leaves. It is important to well moist.

It will take approximately 12 weeks to grow. To harvest, pull off individual leaves ("Igrowveg," 2009).

  • Chard is grown in late spring, usually in between April to May.

Chard is valuable dietary supplement for vegans and vegeterians. Chard is rich source of minerals including magnesium, calcium, vitamin K, iron, potassium, vitamin A, folate, zinc, copper, vitamin C, dietary fiber, and vitamin E (Smith, 2010).

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 36 g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 7
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg
Sodium 77mg 3%
Total Carbohydrate 1g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 1g 2%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 1g
Vitamine A 44%
Vitamine C 18%
Calcium 2%
Iron 4%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

236763.jpg

Source

Sweet and Spicy Swiss Chard


Ingredients

• 1 tablespoon olive oil

• 1 bunch rainbow chard - leaves and stems separated and chopped

• 1/3 cup chopped yellow onion

• 2 (1/4 inch thick) slices fresh ginger root, peeled and julienned

• salt and pepper to taste

• 1 tablespoon maple syrup


Directions

Heat the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Cook the chopped chard stems, onion, and ginger in the hot oil until they begin to soften; season with salt and pepper. Add the chopped chard leaves to the skillet; reduce heat to low. Continue cooking until the leaves have wilted, about 2 minutes more. Drizzle the maple syrup over the mixture; stir to coat evenly. Remove from heat and serve.

Nutritional Information Amount Per Serving Calories: 60 | Total Fat: 3.5g | Cholesterol: 0mg

More from: http://allrecipes.com/Recipes/Fruits-and-Vegetables/Vegetables-A-M/Greens/Chard/Main.aspx

  • No information found
  • None apart from its educational value as a crop that can be observed growing throughout the year
  • Igrowveg. (2009). Retrieved from
           http://igrowveg.com/how-to-guides/growing-chard/
  • Smith, S.E. (2010, April 02). Wisegeek. Retrieved from
           http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-chard.htm
  • Chard is relative of beets, which have very simlar look of leaves. Chard has ruffled fan-life leaves which as rich color with bright stems. Chard is very popular in Mediterranean cuisine, which can be found in pizza, in risotto, and plain side dishes. Chard can be also cooked in various ways, including steaming, roasted and grilled (Smith, 2010).

THe most common chard for cultivation is Swiss chard (Smith, 2010).

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Chard

Cucumber

4791969700_57fc2c460f.jpg

source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 10 years/ None

The cucumber is a semi-tropical vegetable and grows best in hot summer months as it is unable to handle frost. Cucumber plants do not grow well in cool, damp weather as they are sensitive to low temperatures which can impede their growth and production of fruit. Cucumbers require warm soil and once the soil is at a temperature warm enough seeds should be planted deep within the soil. In combination of high humidity with cool weather, these plants can easily develop mildew and thus such conditions are unfavorable. A powdery mildew will form covering the leaves with a whitish dust. The powdery mildew impedes photosynthesis and can kill the plant (Solomon, 2000).

After sowing the seeds, the seeds should not watered. Hopefully it does not rain, so that when the shoot comes up through the soil it is not subjected to moisture and therefore the development of mildew before it blooms in the sun. If the soil is watered the temperature will decrease slowing the rate of sprouting and make the seedlings more vulnerable to disease (Solomon, 2000).

Growing vines require continuous fertilization and plenty of room. Only one plant should be grown per spot, giving the plant plenty of room to grown prevents competition between plants. The varieties grown in North American required the pollination of their flowers for successful fruit growth, whereas, the European varieties are able to set fruit without pollination and are referred to as parthenocarpic (Johnny's Seeds, 2010).

Picking cucumbers once rip from their vines makes the vines more productive. Optimum pH for soil is 5.8 to 7 and the soil should be kept moist but not wet. Greenhouse production of cucumbers is popular to supply off season demands. Due to the controlled growing conditions of greenhouses, greenhouse grown cucumbers tend to be more uniform (Solomon, 2010).

Cucumbers are grown during warm season and are harvested in the months of July to late September (Solomon, 2010).

Cucumbers are composed of about 90% water and are a healthy nutritious low calorie food. They are also a good source of biotin and beta carotene. Biotin is a B vitamin and is necessary for the production of fatty acids, the metabolism of fats and amino acids, cell growth and is a coenzyme for numerous metabolic reactions. Beta carotene is a carotenoid with the highest vitamin A activity. It is a precursor of vitamin A which has a key physiological role in night vision, cell differentiation, growth of epithelial cells, and is essential for the reproductive process (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 1 Medium Cucumber (201 g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 24
Total Fat 0.5g 1%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 4mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 4g 5%
   Dietary Fiber 1.5g 10%
   Sugars 3g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 10%
Calcium 3%
Iron 3%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Note: Nutritional information derived from data provided by Health Canada.

Spicy Green Mango and Cucumber Salad

Spicy_Green_Mango_and_Cucumber_Salad_003.jpg

Source

This recipe is easy, quick, and delicious! It is a perfect snack for anyone of the go. Thai chiles are a great way to add flavour to any salad and compliment the fresh taste of cucumbers.


NGREDIENTS

1 medium English cucumber, peeled

2 green mangoes, peeled and pit removed

1 red Thai chile (also known as bird chile), finely sliced into rings, seeds removed

1 tablespoon chopped fresh mint (15 ml)

1 tablespoon chopped fresh cilantro (15 ml)

1 tablespoon freshly grated ginger (15 ml)

2 tablespoons rice wine vinegar (30 ml)

1 teaspoon fish sauce (5 ml)

large pinch of sugar (1 ml)

2 tablespoons black sesame seeds, for garnish (30 ml)


DIRECTIONS

With a veggie peeler, peel lengthwise down the cucumber to create long wide strips. Turn the cucumber after several strips, to use another side. Place cucumber strips in a medium-sized bowl. Discard inner section of cucumber with seeds. Repeat technique with the green mangoes adding the strips to bowl. Add the sliced chiles, mint and cilantro to the cucumber. Set aside. In a small bowl, mix the ginger, rice wine vinegar, fish sauce, and sugar. Stir to combine. Toss dressing with the cucumber strips, mango strips, herbs and chile. Sprinkle with black sesame seeds. Serve immediately.

Courtsey of Christine Cushing from Christine Cushing Live.

Due to their high water content, cucumbers have been used as hydrating skin nourishment most often used to alleviate the puffiness of skin underneath the eyes. Their cool temperature and hydrating properties reduce the swelling of skin (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).

Cucumber-Mint Facial Mask

INGREDIENTS

5 fresh mint leaves

1/4 medium cucumber

1 large egg white

Bottled or spring water


DIRECTIONS

1. Place the mint in a food processor or blender and give it one short burst to chop. Peel and seed the cucumber. Add it to the mint in the processor or blender and puree. Beat the egg white separately until it stands in stiff peaks. Fold it very gently in to the pureed cucumber mixture. 2. Apply evenly to the face and neck and leave on for 20 minutes. Rinse with bottled or spring water and pat dry.

None to date

Spicy Green Mango and Cucumber Salad. (2010) Christine Cushing from Christine Cushing Live. Retrieved from http://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipes/Salad/Fruit/recipe.html?dishid=6904

Johnny's Seeds. (2010). Cucumber. Retrieved from http://www.johnnyseeds.com/p-6226-socrates-f1.aspx

Solomon, S. (2000). Growing vegetables west of the Cascades : the complete guide to natural gardening. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books

World's Healthiest Foods. (2010). Cucumber. Retrieved from http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=42

  • Cucumbers belong to the Cucurbitaceae family which also included melons, pumpkins, and squashes. All of fruits from this family are referred to as cucurbits and grow from vines originally from desert plants. Cucumbers, also known as Cucumis sativus, are divided into 2 general groups: slicers for slicing and picklers for pickling (Solomon, 2010).
  • The human olfactory response varies to the taste and smell of cucumbers. Most people describe cucumbers as having a watery, light melon taste, while a small percentage of people report a repungant, bitter taste. This repungant taste is cause by an organic compound called phenylthiocarbamide. One common method believed to remove this bitterness is by cutting off the ends of a cucumber and rubbing the now-exposed ends with the sliced off ends until forthing occurs (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).

Lessons from the UBC Farm:

  • Difficulty of Growing: 1 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)
  • Plants as early as weather allows using high quality hybrid-type seeds, expect to pay ~$0.50/seed. Socrates is a recommended variety and a very prolific producer in good conditions (Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Cucumber

Filet Bean

3518822574_311612fb21.jpg

Source: [1]

Common Names: Haricot Vert, French filet, French bean [1]


Filet beans are straight and tender beans, thinner and relatively shorter than other beans [1]. They are dark green pods streaked with purple [1]. They are not just an ordinary snap picked while still immature, and generally not considered a separate species [1].


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: about 10 years, on/off


Filet beans are easy to grow; they yield early and need no support. They reach their flavour peak at 5-7” long and a mere 3/8” wide [1].

It is best when it grows under the sun, but a sheltered site is preferred to protect from cold winds [3].

Filet beans are ideal companions for lettuce, beetroot and other low growing vegetables which appreciate some shade in midday heat (in case of pole beans) [3].

Fertile soil and regular moisture are important. During growing season, water 30-45 minutes per day for soil to be moist but not soggy (adjust watering to suit the climate conditions) [4].

Temperature should be at about 60°F [4].

The plant produces heavily [1]. Yield varies with weather conditions but typically first harvest is scanty, second week is heavy, and then harvest decreases in the third week.

Filet beans are usualy available in the summer [4].

The first crop is usually sown in April to June and yields about 50 to 80 days later, around mid July to mid October [3][4]. Make sure to allow 10 days to two weeks between plantings

It is recommended that the last planting takes place 80 days before the last frost-free date [4].

Filet beans need 70 to 80 days of moderate temperature (night below 40°F and daytime about 70°F to 90°F). It has no toleration for frost, tending to brown like basil at about 38°F.

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 100g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 343
Total Fat 2.02g 2%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 18mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 18g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 25.2g 10%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 18.9g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 8%
Calcium 2%
Iron 24%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


  • Information based on USDA What's In The Foods You Eat Search Tool[5]

-see additional note

  • Soup

French Bean Soup from GardenAction

A soup of french (filet) beans, mixed veggie and herb


  • Dish

French Bean Stir Fry Enjoy it hot!

  • coming soon...


  • *The nutrition information for filet beans is obtained from USDA since Canadian Nutrient File does not provide it. Daily % value calculated according to standard set by CFIA.
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Filet_Bean

Fresh Shelling Beans

1038628048_60255e7c9f.jpg

Source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: Two

Shell beans need warm soil, and require a growing season that has temperatures averaging between 70-80 degree Fahrenheit (MEN, 2010). No matter what variety is grown at the farm, it is essential that the beans have well drained soil that is rich in organic matter. pH should range between 6.0 and 7.5-lime can be worked into the soil if the soil is too acidic. As learned, legumes are able to fix their own nitrogen, so it is essential that when growing shelling beans there is not an excess of fertilizer added to the plots (MEN, 2010). Over fertilizing beans will result in a large amount of lush green leaves and foliage, but few beans produced. Possibly pertaining to the farm, or anyone else who has decided to start to grow beans. If beans are planted in a plant where they have never been planted before, it is suggested that the bean seeds are inoculated with a bacterial inoculant powder (MEN, 2010). However, please note that the seeds should not be soaked, as they are very susceptible to rot. Obviously, bean seeds do not grow very well in soggy soils, and this should be avoided at all costs when managing bean seeds (MEN, 2010).

The term shelling beans is somewhat of an oddity-common beans as well as shelling beans have their pods removed before they are used in cooking or processed (FAO). Shelling beans include lima beans, soybeans, peas, or fava beans. Shelling beans refer to a type of bean that has its shell removed and disposed of before the eating of it.

Shelling beans are referred to in many cooking circles as a "fall treat"-hence it can be assumed that the best time to find fresh shelling beans in your supermarket or at markets is towards the end of the growing season (Mariquita Farm). Beans can be cooked in their pods and tenderized in broth or water- they can easily replace cooked dry beans, and provide a healthier alternative (Foodborne) Fresh shelling beans should be stored whole and in their pods in the refrigerator. It is important to have good air circulation wherever they are stored, as they will grow mouldy otherwise (Foodborne).

Shelling beans are nutritionally similar to dry beans, but are often either steamed, fried or made into soups and stews. Due to these procedures (steaming, frying), most of their nutritional value is lost in the cooking processes, and it is recommended that to extract the highest nutritional value they should be eaten raw (FAO).

Shelling beans can be shucked and added to salads- this method of eating will ensure that the nutrition is not wasted away in cooking methods.

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 100g (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 31
Total Fat 0.1g
Cholesterol
Sodium
Total Carbohydrate 7g
   Sugars 1.4g
Protein 1.8g
Vitamine A 4%
Vitamine C 27%
Calcium 4%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

Pasta with Fresh Shelling Beans and Broccoli

2 tablespoons olive oil 1 cup chopped onion 3 garlic cloves, minced 1/2 teaspoon dried crushed red pepper 2 pounds loosely chopped tomatoes or 1 28-ounce can diced tomatoes in juice 1/4 cup water 1 1/2 pounds shelling beans, shelled and lightly steamed til tender/firm 1/2 cup chopped fresh basil 8 ounces orecchiette (little ear-shaped pasta; about 2 cups) or medium pasta shells 1 pound broccoli crowns, separated into small florets (about 5 cups) 3 tablespoons freshly shaved Parmesan cheese

Heat oil in large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add onion and sauté until tender, about 5 minutes. Add garlic and crushed red pepper; stir 1 minute. Stir in tomatoes with juices and 1/4 cup water. Bring to boil. Reduce heat to medium; boil gently until sauce thickens, stirring occasionally, about 10 minutes. Stir in beans and basil. Season sauce to taste with salt and pepper.

Meanwhile, cook orecchiette pasta in large pot of boiling salted water until almost tender, about 15 minutes. Add broccoli florets; cook until pasta is just tender but still firm to bite and broccoli florets are crisp-tender, about 2 minutes longer. Ladle out 1/2 cup pasta cooking water and reserve. Drain orecchiette and broccoli florets; return to pot.

Add tomato sauce and reserved pasta cooking water to pasta and toss to blend. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Transfer pasta to bowl. Sprinkle with cheese and serve.

Per serving: calories, 423; total fat, 10 g; saturated fat, 2 g; cholesterol, 3 mg; fiber, 11 g Makes 4 servings.

    • Adapted from Appétit**

Fresh Shelling Bean & Basil Soup

Special thanks to Mary from Mariquita Farm for this recipe. She suggests to make this recipe when fresh shelling beans are in season-the taste will be amazing with a variety of fresh shelling beans!

Serves 6

Preheat oven to 400F.

INGREDIENTS

The Toasts:

6 slices chewy, country-style bread 2 table spoons olive oil 2 garlic cloves

The Soup:

1 T. extra virgin olive oil 2 garlic cloves, minced 1 yellow onion, minced 5 c. chicken broth 3-4 c. fresh shelled beans, or other shelled white beans (about 4#) 1 bay leaf 1 t. freshly ground pepper 1/4 lb. pencil-thin French haricot vert beans, cut into 2" lengths (optional) 1/2 c. basil leaves 1/4 c. extra virgin olive oil

Instructions:

Preheat oven to 400F. Place the bread slices on a baking sheet and bake for 15 mins. Remove from oven and drizzle with olive oil. Return to oven and bake for another 5-10 mins. until toasts are firm and lightly golden. Remove and let cool, then rub both sides of each toast with a garlic clove. Set aside.

Soup: Heat the olive oil over medium heat in a heavy-bottomed soup pot. Add the garlic and onion; cook, stirring for a minute or two, until the onion is translucent. Add the chicken broth, beans,, bay leaf and pepper. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat to low and simmer for 20 mins., or until the beans are soft. Taste for salt, adding more is needed. Remove the bay leaf. Remove 1 c. of the beans, puree in a processor or blender, then return them to pot. Add the optional haricot vert and simmer for a few moments, until the haricot vert are just tender. While the beans are cooking, puree the basil and olive oil. Set aside.

To Serve: Place a toast in the bottom of each soup bowl, then ladle in the soup. Add a teaspoon of the basil sauce to each, giving half a stir with the spoon to make a swirl.

Easter_decorations.jpg

source

Dried beans from shelling beans can be used for decorative purposes, as seen above in the easter eggs. These easter eggs were decorated with dried beans, the instructions to make these eggs can be found below:


Egg Decoration With Everyday Kitchen Items (PurpleTrail Crafts)

Use nontoxic glue to hold different colors of dry (not cooked) rice, such as white, brown or wild rice, onto your Easter eggs. You could also use small pasta shapes, such as alphabet letters, elbow pasta, orzo (rice-shaped pasta) or shells. Or use dry beans of any kind, such as black, kidney, navy, pinto or red beans. You can even use dry split peas or lentils, or un-popped popcorn kernels. Use a small brush to spread glue on the egg, or squeeze the glue right out of the bottle to make a design on the egg shell. Use tweezers to make it easier to pick up small shapes. Press the shapes gently into the glue. For rice (and other very small shapes, like orzo) pour the rice into a bowl and simply roll the glued egg in it. Work on one small section of the egg at a time, about 1/4 of the egg at the most. Then, turn the egg and work on another section. When the design is done, let the glue dry. Use an egg carton to dry the eggs. If you’ve used a lot of glue, it might take up to 2 hours for the eggs to dry.

Interestingly, there is a significant invention currently being undertaken at UBC, by the UBC engineers. Their goal is to investigate and design a machine that can mechanically shuck shelling beans.

Easter eggs: http://www.purpletrail.com/partytrail/party_planning/party_decorations/easter-egg-decorating-for-everyone.

FAO, 2010. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, accessed March 21, 2010.

Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook: Phytohaemagglutinin". Bad Bug Book. United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2009-07-11

Mariquita Farm. http://www.mariquita.com/recipes/shelling%20beans.html.

MEN, 2010. The Original Guide to Living Wisely. http://www.motherearthnews.com/Organic-Gardening/1989-11-01/About-Shell-Beans.aspx?page=3.

Lessons from the UBC farm:

  • Difficulty of Growing: 1 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)
  • Plant early and use early maturing varieties, such as Teggia. Avoid prolonged wetness otherwise white rot (mold) will result (Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Fresh_Shelling_Beans

Garlic

4734814099_48352486c2.jpg

Source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: not available (currently grown at UBC farm)


Latin name: Allium sativum


Varieties

  • It is in your best interest to buy garlic cloves that are compatible with the climate and day length in your area.
  • There are 600 known species categorized under genus Allium.

Common names and description of some garlic varieties:

  • Bavarian Purple: strong flavoured garlic that produces up to eight cloves per head
  • California Late: reliable in Mediterranean conditions
  • Elephant garlic: sweet and mild
  • Spanish Roja: mid season, hardneck variety which is popular for its true garlic flavour
  • Serpent Garlic: coiled stem that produces red bulbs
  • Premium Northern White: most cold-hardy garlic of all
  • Music: characterized by big cloves with a tint of pink

Cultivation

  • Garlic can be cultivated annually or biennially. Cool, rainy areas used for its cultivation would result in low-grade, poor tasting garlic. Garlic is hardy so usually few plants are needed to cultivate a garlic garden. But it is important to handle cloves lightly as pressing them into the soil can impair root development. Cloves should be planted vertically with the flattened base at the bottom with at least 1 inch of soil above the tip.

Propagation:

  • Garlic is usually grown from healthy bulb segments from a previous crop. From March to April, ½ inch thick cloves can be planted 4 inches apart and 1 inch deep in 6-8 inch wide rows. A 1-2 month dormant period at temperatures 32-50°F is generally needed for decent sized bulbs to develop. A long growing period is beneficial for the ripening process.

Growing Conditions

  • The planting of cloves is done either in March/April or September/October.

Garlic does best in warm, sunny, well-fertilized open ground especially in sandy, loamy soil. In areas with heavy soil, cloves can be planted any time in pots or packs containing loam-based potting mix and added sharp sand/grit, and can be transplanted outdoors as soon as soil conditions are favourable. On poor soils, a general fertilizer can be added 10 days before planting. It is important to rotate the crop and to not grow garlic in sites where onions have been planted in the previous year.

Protected Cropping

  • Garlic can be grown in pots, window boxes, or containers, in a moisture-retentive, free-draining potting mix. Note: It is important to place container in a sunny location and to water plant regularly for decent-sized bulbs to develop.
  • Fertilization is recommended with 0.30-0.50 lbs/acre nitrogen (nitrate of lime and ammonia), 0.40-0.80 lbs/acre superphosphate, and 1-1.50 lbs/acre potassium salt 40%. Compost or manure can also be used. The addition of nitrogen can significantly improve crop yield.

Maintenance

  • Keep the bulbs weed-free throughout the growing season.
  • Spring: Mulch to suppress weeds. Water if necessary.
  • Summer: Keep weed-free.
  • Fall: Plant cloves in containers for transplanting in spring.

Storage

  • Store garlic in cool, dry indoor conditions (ie. in a shed or garage). Hang them in bunches tied by the leaves, in string bags, or braid the stems together. Good garlic is firm. Discoloured or dried up bulbs or cloves will have an off-flavour.

Companion Planting

  • Garlic planted beside rose bushes can control greenflies. Good companions are lettuce, beet, Swiss chard, and strawberries while peas or beans should be avoided.


Harvesting

  • Harvesting usually takes place mid-to-late summer after leaves and bulb stems have begun to turn yellow. Dig bulbs out to either sun dry or air dry under covers. A delayed harvest can cause bulbs to shrivel which could increase the likelihood of being diseased during storage. Handle harvest with care as garlic is easily bruised.


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 1 clove (3g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 4
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 1mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 1g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 0g 0%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 0.2g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 2%
Calcium 0%
Iron 0%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

  • Garlic is used as seasoning in many cuisines. Specific dishes include curries, stir fries, and pastas.

Borscht (serves 8-10, from Agora manager Laura Hsu)

Ingredients

  • 2 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 large white onion, chopped
  • 3 cups beets, chopped
  • 1 cup carrots, chopped
  • 3 stalks celery, chopped
  • 3 cups cabbage, shredded
  • 3 Tbsp oil
  • ½ cup tomato juice
  • 2 Tbsp lemon juice
  • 10 cups vegetable stock
  • 1 bunch dill, chopped
  • 2 bay leaves
  • salt & pepper

Methods

  • Sauté onion in 1 Tbsp oil until golden and soft. Set aside.
  • In a big soup pot, sauté carrots, celery, and cabbage in 2 Tbsp oil for 3 minutes. Add bay leaf, basil, beets and stock and simmer until beets are slightly tender, about 30 minutes.
  • Add lemon juice, tomato juice, dill, onions, salt and pepper. Adjust seasoning to taste.
  • Serve with a dollop of sour cream or thick plain yogurt on top.



Medicinal Uses

  • Legendary Old-Indian physicians Charaka, Susruta, and Vagbhata knew the therapeutic benefits of garlic; namely, as a remedy for skin diseases, loss of appetite, dyspepsia, cough, anorexia, rheumatic conditions, abdominal diseases, spleen enlargement, and haemorrhoids. Likewise, the Arabs used all parts of the plant for treatment of worms, snake bites, vermin control, skin rashes, dentistry, treatment of eye diseases, menstrual abnormalities, and in veterinary medicine.

In southern Germany, France, and Italy, garlic is used medicinally in the following ways:

  • ear and tooth ache: put a fried garlic bulb on the upper arm to divert pain
  • herpes rashes: use freshly pressed garlic juice externally
  • whooping cough: rub garlic under the soles of feet and around the heart area
  • to eliminate worms in children: garlic cooked in milk and given as an enema

Therapeutic Effects

  • Heart and circulatory system: garlic may protect blood vessels from damaging effects of free radicals; improve blood lipid profile, increase capillary flow, and lower elevated blood pressure levels

Antibacterial effects (allicin)

  • Prolonged heating of cloves at high temperature causes antimicrobial activity
  • In 1944, the antibacterial activity of crushed garlic clove as an oxygenated sulfur compound (allicin) was identified. Alliin, an oxygenated sulfur amino acid, was later discovered as the parent compound of allicin. *Alliin alone had no antibiotic activity unless converted to allicin by a garlic enzyme, alliinase.

Antifungal effects:

  • against pathogenic fungi and yeasts

Antiparasitic effects

Insecticidal and repellent effects

  • garlic oil for mosquito control

Antioxidant

  • inhibits formation of free radicals, support endogenous radical scavenger mechanisms, and protect LDL against oxidation by free radicals
  • ex: garlic and onion extracts have been used for the preservation of oil or lard for 3-6 months

Anticancer effects:

  • Epidemiological studies have shown that garlic may significantly reduce the risk of cancer especially cancers of gastrointestinal tract
  • Iowa Women’s Health study found that garlic was the only food out of the 127 foods included in the study that had a statistically significant association with decreased colon cancer risk.

Immunomodulatory effects

  • Preliminary studies in humans using an alliin/allicin standardized garlic power preparation has elucidated positive effects on immunoreactions and phagocytosis

Hypoglycemic effects

  • lower elevated blood glucose concentrations
  • Enhancement of thiamine absorption


Information not available


Koch, H.P., & Lawson, L.D. (1996). Garlic: The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species Second Edition . Ann Harbor, MI: Williams & Wilkins

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp


History

  • Origin: Central Asia
  • The usage of Allium sativum L. dates back to the Neolithic Age. Because of its strong taste and odour, garlic is not well-received everywhere; in particular, the northern countries. However, in southern countries like China, garlic was used as both medicine and seasoning.
  • Garlic played an important role in Egypt. According to a report of Herodotus in History of Egypt, there is an inscription on the pyramid that reports the amount of radishes, onions and garlic which were consumed by the construction workers of the pyramid to keep them in good health. In modern currency, 1600 silver talents would roughly translate to 10 million dollars being spent on radishes, onions, and garlic over twenty years for 360,000 workers. Interestingly, remains of garlic bulbs have also been found in the burial chambers of Tutankhamen, who was buried in 1352 BC. Ancient Egyptians viewed garlic as consecrated and sacred.
  • Romans believed that garlic could void off evil spirits from their homes so they not only consumed garlic but they also painted the actual garlic plant on walls.
  • Did you know that today almost 3 million tons per annum are produced globally?
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Garlic

Head Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

"51788825_8fe1cfd722.jpg"

Source

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: # 8/0

  • Common varieties grown include Buttercrunch, Continuity, Red Butterworth, and Speckled Butterhead, all of which can be found at West Coast Seeds.

[ 1 ]Lettuce grows best in cool weather, during the spring and fall. It is recommended to start sowing seeds after any chance of frost has past, and plant every 2-3 weeks for a continuous harvest. Mid-August plantings, with the benefit of added protection, can stretch the harvest into winter.

Seeding: Lettuce can be direct seeded, or started indoors and raised as transplants. Either way, plant the seeds on the surface and gently pat them into the soil (requires light to germinate). Seeds sprout in 2-14 days, depending on soil temperature.

  • It should be noted that outdoors, they do not sprout well when the temperature is over 21 C (70 F), typically during July and August. To overcome this problem, called thermal dormancy, sprout lettuce seeds indoors in a cool area, or pre-sprout by placing the seeds on a damp paper towel, in a plastic bag put in the fridge for a few days. In optimal conditions, at least 80% of seeds will germinate.

Bolting:

4917773822_b0ab967cd9.jpg

Source: [1]

Head Lettuce bolts in the heat of mid-summer, producing its flower head. This is usually undesirable unless you wish to save the seed, as once this happens the lettuce will become bitter. To help minimize this, keep your lettuce watered well and provide shading from mid-day sun.

Spring through Fall. Winter if protection is provided.

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 72 g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 10 (Calories from Fat 1)
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 7mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 2g 1%
   Dietary Fiber 1g 3%
   Sugars 1g
Protein 1g
Vitamine A 7%
Vitamine C 3%
Calcium 1%
Iron 2%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

Source

  • It is reported that the darker green leaves contain six times more vitamin C and eight times more Vitamin A then the lighter leaf varieties [ 2 ].

Cut a large head of lettuce in half. Set aside the largest and strongest of the leaves as your “bowl”. Inside the lettuce bowl fill with lettuce pieces. Try to use a variety of head lettuce types for added colour and interest. At this stage add any of your favourite local and seasonal veggies. Adding coarsely chopped fresh herbs will add flavour and even more vitamins. Drizzle with olive oil and lime or your favourite vinegar. Top with edible flowers (cornflower, calendula etc...) and serve immediately.

Medicinal Information:

  • Scholarly sources: Recently, head lettuce is being studied for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties [ 3 ].
  • Reported therapeutic effects range from uses as diuretics, to treatments for respiratory and digestive track ailments. Further information can be found at Botanical Online.

Notes from the UBC Farm (2010) [ 4 ]: UBC Farm is hoping to increase production of head lettuce. It’s a challenge to to grow well due to the fact that it bolts readily/gets bitter in the heat; then in the cool season, it's prone to downy mildew. Bottom rots can be an issue in the intermediate periods. Cabbage loopers, aphids, and wireworms are all pest problems at times. Because it takes longer to mature than baby leaf lettuces, head lettuce is also more of a challenge in terms of weed control. Growing from transplants is a way to address this, but that's an additional work in itself.

It is also being considered for cultivation for the LFSOG 2010 if harvest times and storage-ability can be improved. The UBC Farm and LFSOG follow the General Principles and Management Standards as outlined by the Certified Organic Association of BC.

When in season, you can find different varieties of head lettuce for sale at UBC Farm’s Saturday Markets.

Images


[1] West Coast Seeds. (2010). How to grow lettuce. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from http://www.westcoastseeds.com/how-to-grow/Vegetable-Seeds/Lettuce/

[2] Lettuce Food Facts (2010). Retrieved April 05, 2010 from http://www.bellybytes.com/foodfacts/lettuce_facts.html

[3] Mohammad Sayyah, Naghmeh H. and Mohammad K (2004). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Lactuca sativa seed extract in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 92, Issues 2-3, June 2004, Pages 325-329.

[4] Timothy Carter, Production Coordinator , Centre for Sustainable Food Systems at UBC Farm, 2010. Email Received April 6th 2010.

Did You Know?:

  • That typically is it best to harvest head lettuce at dawn or dusk, when photosynthetic activity is low. This minimizes wilting, thereby maximizing its storage time.
  • To increase fridge life, try wrapping the head lettuce in a moist tea-towel and place it in a sealed plastic bag, blowing in air to minimize air space (reducing areas of bacterial growth) and to maintain crispness.
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Head_Lettuce

Kale

7446111910_85a586f19d.jpg

Source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: #

  • Kale is relative to cabbage that grows loosely in leaves rather than forming a head structure. Although kale have little biteer taste in flavor, it contains extraordinary rich nutrients (Smith 2010).

Kale can be grown in any kind of soils with good drainage. It requires full exposure of sun. To sow kale, you first draw a row or line in the raised bed soil that is no deeper than 1.5cm (0.5inch). Make sure to sow thinly so they have room to establish. Keep them moist. Thin and plant seedlings well, and water the kale well until they are fully established. Kale can taste better if it is affected by the frost. It can be harvested after approximately 28 to 32 weeks. To harvest, cut off the inner leaves.

  • Kales can be sow in between March to May and harvest through September to March
  • Kale is a rich source calcium, vitamin K, folic acid, magnesium, and beta carotene. It is especially recommended for those who are deficient in calcium (Smith, 2010).
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 50 g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 250mL/71g
Total Fat 0g 1%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 29mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 7g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 1g 5%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 206%
Vitamine C 134%
Calcium 9%
Iron 6%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet
  • Bean Soup with Kale

16483.jpg

Ingredients

1 tablespoon olive oil or canola oil 8 large garlic cloves, crushed or minced 1 medium yellow onion, chopped 4 cups chopped raw kale 4 cups low-fat, low-sodium chicken or vegetable broth 2 (15 ounce) cans white beans, such as cannellini or navy, undrained 4 plum tomatoes, chopped 2 teaspoons dried Italian herb seasoning Salt and pepper to taste 1 cup chopped parsley

Directions

In a large pot, heat olive oil. Add garlic and onion; saute until soft. Add kale and saute, stirring, until wilted. Add 3 cups of broth, 2 cups of beans, and all of the tomato, herbs, salt and pepper. Simmer 5 minutes. In a blender or food processor, mix the remaining beans and broth until smooth. Stir into soup to thicken. Simmer 15 minutes. Ladle into bowls; sprinkle with chopped parsley (Carper, 2004)

  • Ornamental kale in blossom can be used for decorative purposes. Kale leaves have varieties of white, red, pink, lavender, blue or violet in the interior or the rosette.
  • Smith, S.E. (2010, April 02). Wisegeek. Retrieved from
           http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-kale.htm
  • Carper, J. (2004). All Recipes. Retrieved from
           http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Bean-Soup-With-Kale/Detail.aspx
  • Kale is extremely popular in ancient Rome, and in Rome, which has been cultivated for over 3,000 years. Since kale can be easily grown, and it is tolerant to cool climates, it was sometimes the only vegetable eaten in medieval times (Smith, 2010). Kale is suitable to garden in almost any part of the world (Smith, 2010)!
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Kale

Kohlrabi

kohlrabi.jpg

Source: [[1]]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 10 (on and off)


Plant seeds between early-April and mid-May for a summer crop; plant between mid-July and early-August for a fall crop. Planting between mid-May and mid-July may produce inferior crops. Plant seeds 1 centimetre apart, 1 centimetre deep, in rows at least 30 centimetres apart. The soil should be well-drained, high in organic matter, and with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5. This plant prefers full sunlight, but also requires lots of consistent moisture. Kohlrabi is considered to be easy to grow. [1]


Kohlrabi can be sown starting in the spring and can even last beyond Christmas, as it is frost-hardy. [1]


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 39
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 212mg 71%
Sodium 30mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 9g 3%
   Dietary Fiber 5g 20%
   Sugars 4g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 150%
Calcium 4%
Iron 4%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet [2]

Pumpkin & Kohlrabi Soup

Ingredients: 1 lb / 500 g pumpkin 1 large or 2 small kohlrabi 2 medium potatoes 1 medium onion, sliced 1 clove garlic, peeled and minced 2 vegetable stock cubes Salt and freshly ground black pepper Sour cream to garnish

Instructions: 1. Peel, de-seed and dice the pumpkin, then peel and dice the kohlrabi. 2. Wash and dice the potatoes – there’s no need to peel them. The vegetables can be roughly chopped, but all the pieces should be a similar size so they cook at the same speed. 3. Heat a tablespoon of sunflower oil in a large heavy-bottomed saucepan and gently fry the onion and garlic until soft. 4. Add the pumpkin, kohlrabi and potatoes, stock cubes and 35 fl oz / 1 liter of water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer until the vegetables are soft, about 20-25 minutes. 5. For a chunkier soup, simply mash the vegetables roughly in the pan with a potato masher. Otherwise use a hand-held blender. If the soup is too thick at this point, add a little more water and heat through. 6. Season with salt and pepper if necessary, but bear in mind that stock cubes are already quite salty. 7. Divide the soup between four bowls and garnish each bowl with a small ‘dollop’ of sour cream


None apart from its educational value as a crop that can be observed growing throughout the year.

1) West Coast Seeds. (2010). How to Grow Asparagus. Retrieved from http://www.westcoastseeds.com/how-to-grow/Vegetable-Seeds/Asparagus/

2) Health Canada. (2009). Canadian Nutrient File. Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/report-rapport.do?lang=eng

3) Suite101. (n.d.). Pumpkin and Kohlrabi Soup. Retrieved from http://fall-recipes.suite101.com/article.cfm/pumpkin_and_kohlrabi_soup


Lessons from UBC Farm:

  • Difficulty of Growing: 2 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)
  • Similar to growing broccoli, large varieties such as Super Shmelts are recommended(Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Kohlrabi

Leeks

4613023156_4b70539a32.jpg

Source: [1]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: two/zero

Light, moist, nutrient-rich soils are best for growing leeks. This crop is frost tolerant but grows slowly. Thus, early varieties must be sown indoors; late varieties can be sown outside directly.

To sow seeds indoors, start by placing seeds one and half cm deep, about four per cm in rows 7cm apart on a five cm deep tray. Sprout at about 20C and grow at about 18C during the day (14 hour days) and about 10C at night. Do not thin but do trim their tops to maintain a height of about 7cm. transplant outdoors when stems are about half a cm in diameter or by May 1st. outside, seedlings are placed into a 15-20 cm deep and wide trench. The bottom of this trench should consist of well loosened, fertilized soil. Space seedlings 5 cm apart and cover with soil up to the first leaf joint. As the leeks grow soil should be added to keep the soil just below this leaf joint, this maximizes the edible portion of the leek. Sowing seeds outside requires careful soil preparation; it should be mixed with compost and fertilized with a complete organic fertilizer resulting in potting soil-like conditions about 8 cm deep. Create one and half cm deep furrows, 30 cm apart, and sow about 3 seeds per cm, cover with loose soil. Aim for one seedling per cm, thin if necessary. Once seedlings are about one cm in diameter (mid summer) they are transferred to trenches as described above.

Keeping the soil moisture around 70% at all times is generally all that is needed to keep leeks growing well as they are quite hardy and generally do not have problems with pests or disease (Solomon, 2000).

There are two main types of leeks: fall, which are harvested in the fall, and winter, which are harvested in the winter and spring. Fall leeks require a very early start; they are sown indoors under lights in mid February and then transplanted outside by May 1st. These will be ready for harvest during September and October when the stems are about three cm or larger in diameter. Winter leeks are sown outside in early May and then transplanted around mid July to trenches for their final growth phase. These can be harvested from November to May (Solomon, 2000).

Leeks like other alliums, including garlic and onion, have long been recognized for their health promoting properties. Most health research regarding alliums has focussed specifically on the effects of onions and garlic consumption, which have been shown to be anticancer, antiasthmatic, antibiotic, and beneficial to cardiovascular health. It is thought that leeks offer similar benefits. Dedicated research on leeks has revealed anticancer effects and antiplatelet activity (Rabinowitch & Currah, 2002).

Leeks along with other alliums may pose a health risk to people with serious kidney or gall bladder problems. This is because they contain naturally occurring oxalates, which can crystallize in the body if they become too concentrated.

When selecting leeks, look for those that are firm and straight with white lowers and dark green upper leaves, avoid any with yellowing, cracks, or bruising. For the best texture, i.e. not too fibrous, choose leeks that are under four cm in diameter.

Fresh leeks should be stored loosely in plastic unwashed and untrimmed in the fridge for up to two weeks. Alternatively, leeks can be blanched and stored in the freezer for up to three months. Cooked leeks spoil quickly; expect spoilage within two days in the fridge.

Before eating leeks some trimming and cleaning is normally required, begin by cutting off the root tip and upper leaves where they become dark green. Next, remove the outer layer and make a length-wise cut center-deep, spread open while passing the leek under running water to flush out any soil trapped in leaf folds (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 32
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 19mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 13g 4%
   Dietary Fiber 2.5g 10%
   Sugars 4g
Protein 1g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 20%
Calcium 5%
Iron 14%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

Note: Nutritional information derived from data provided by Health Canada.

Braised Salmon with Leeks

briased_leeks_with_salmon_picture.jpg [2]

This recipe is a powerhouse for supplying two difficult to find health-promoting nutrients for your Healthiest Way of Eating — vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids. One serving provides 123% of the daily value (DV) for vitamin D and 106% DV for omega-3s. And it only takes 15 minutes to prepare. Enjoy!

Prep and Cook Time: 20 minutes Ingredients:

2 medium leeks, cut lengthwise

4 medium cloves garlic, pressed

1 TBS + 1/2 cup chicken or vegetable broth

1 TBS + 1 TBS fresh lemon juice

1 TBS fresh chopped tarragon

1-1/2 lbs salmon fillet, cut into 8 pieces, skin and bones removed salt and white pepper to taste

Directions:

Cut off green tops of leeks and remove outer tough leaves. Cut off root and cut leeks in half lengthwise. Fan out the leeks and rinse well under running water, leaving them intact. Cut leeks into 2-inch lengths. Now, holding the leek sections cut side up, cut lengthwise so that you end up with thin strips, known as chiffonade cut. Make sure slices are cut very thin. Let leeks and garlic sit for at least 5 minutes to bring out their hidden health benefits. Heat 1 TBS broth in 10-12 inch stainless steel skillet. Healthy Sauté leeks over medium heat in broth for about 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add garlic and sauté for another minute. Add ½ cup broth and lemon juice and simmer for another 5 minutes, covered, stirring occasionally. Rub salmon with 1 TBS fresh lemon juice, salt and white pepper. Stir fresh tarragon, salt, and pepper into leeks, and place salmon on top of leeks. Simmer for about 3-4 minutes, covered, or until salmon is pink inside. Time may vary a little depending on thickness of salmon. Serve leeks topped with salmon and drizzle with juice. Serves 4 Serving Suggestions: Serve with Pureed Sweet Peas


Healthy Cooking Tips:

It is best to choose salmon that is cut from the thickest part of the fish, so filets will remain more moist when cooked. If you want to remove the bones from the salmon rub your fingers over the salmon to find the line of bones. Remove each bone with your fingers, tweezers, or pliers.

Refer to the animation for cutting the leeks: Leeks Cut Lengthwise. When they are cut into thin strips they provide a nice bed for your salmon with more texture than simply slicing them crosswise. It is important to cut the strips thin, as they will not get tender without cooking them for longer. Even thought this recipe is for 4, I cut the salmon into 8 pieces. They cook more evenly when cut small. Otherwise the outside of the salmon gets overdone before the center is cooked. Check the salmon's doneness by inserting the tip of a knife into the center. It should flake, yet be still pink in the center for medium. Remove it from the heat slightly before it is done to your liking, as it will continue to cook while you are serving the dish (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).


Steamed Leeks

A super simple side dish to compliment any meal.

Prep and Cook Time: 10 minutes

Ingredients:

4 Medium leeks

Directions:

Chop leeks into rounds about two cm thick and steam. Season with butter and salt and pepper

Serves 4

Leek leaves are used to tie up herb bundles known as “bouquet garni” which are then used to make soup stock in traditional French cuisine (wikipedia, 2010).

Leeks are worn to celebrate St. David's Day, the Welsh national holiday, every year on March 1st. They are also worn at international rugby games held in Wales since they are one of that country’s national emblems (Historic-uk, 2010).

None apart from its educational value as a crop that can be observed growing throughout the year.

Historic-uk. (2010). The Leek - the national emblem of the Welsh. Retrieved from

       http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/Wales-History/TheLeek.htm

Rabinowitch, H.D. & Currah, L. (2002). Allium crop science: Recent Advances. New York: Wallingford, Oxon

Solomon, S. (2000). Growing vegetables west of the Cascades : the complete guide to natural gardening. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books

Wikipedia (2010). Bouquet garni. Retrieved 2010-03-22 from
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bouquet_garni

The World's Healthiest Foods. (2010). Leeks. Retrieved from http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=9

Leeks are scientifically known as Allium ampeloprasum porrum, this genus has over 700 species, including onion and garlic. Leeks were first cultivated by the ancient Egyptians about 4000 years ago and subsequently spread to medieval Europe. Today leeks are still a popular crop in Europe and are gaining popularity in the USA and beyond (Rabinowitch & Currah, 2002).

Lessons from the UBC Farm:

Difficulty of Growing: 4 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)

Very slow growing, requires diligent weeding, watering and fertilizing (Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Leeks

Mixed Greens

8196883582_745c9fcbfc.jpg

Source: [1]

The mixed greens mixture is comprised mainly of red lettuce, arugula, mizuna, tah tsoi (tatsoi), baby kale, baby chard, mustard greens, and ruby streaks, and can vary depending on season and the availability of crops grown. The mixture is one of the more popular items sold from UBC farm as part of the UBC Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program, to various restaurant customers, and to several UBC food outlets. Recently, the salad mix has been modified to incorporate more baby lettuce into the mixture.

Information not available

Information not available

Information not available

Mixed Citrus Vinaigrette - recipe by Alex99

INGREDIENTS

1 tablespoon white balsamic vinegar

1 tablespoon orange juice

1 tablespoon grapefruit juice

1 tablespoon fresh lime juice

1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice

6 tablespoons olive oil

2 tablespoons chopped toasted walnuts

2 tablespoons grated Romano cheese

salt and pepper to taste


DIRECTIONS

Mix together the vinegar, orange juice, grapefruit juice, lime juice, and lemon juice. Slowly add the olive oil while whisking vigorously. Add the walnuts and Romano cheese and stir. Season with salt and pepper.

Information not available


Information not available


Restaurant Customers:

Pair Bistro

"Locally sourced ingredients served amongst a gallery of powerful artwork celebrating the first nations heritage and natural history of British Columbia. Since it's inception in 2004 the Bistro has passionately showcased an award winning BC wine list comprised of select and boutique style wines as well as a food menu derived from the exceptional bounty of the province."


CRU

Provence Mediterranean Grill

C

"We are devoted to serving you sustainable seafood from our local waters and ingredients that are distinctive and homegrown."


Nu

"We are devoted to nurturing relationships with farmers, growers, producers, and fishermen in our community."


Raincity

"Raincity’s continuing efforts to move in a more responsible direction has resulted in the following selection of local dishes where the star of the plates are the vegetables from our local farms. The need to protect valuable farm land and encourage the production of more sustainable local food sources, has prompted us to look to vegetables as the next muse for our creativity. We invite you to participate in the experience of an enjoyable and satisfying meal created from the farms of British Columbia."

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Mixed_Greens

Oregano

oregano.jpg

[1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: not available

Species

  • Origanum amanum
  • Origanum x applii
  • Origanum dictamnus
  • Origanum Kent Beauty
  • Origanum laevigatum
  • Origanum laevigatum Herrenhausen
  • Origanum majorana
  • Origanum onites
  • Origanum rotundifolium
  • Origanum vulgare
  • Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum Greek
  • Origanum vulgare Aureum
  • Origanum vulgare Aureum Crispum
  • Origanum vulgare Compactum
  • Origanum vulgare Gold Tip
  • Origanum vulgare Nanum

Growing

  • The following can be grown from seed: Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum Greek. The seed is very fine, so sow in spring into prepared seed or plug trays. Leave uncovered and give a bottom heat of 60 F. Germination can be erratic or totally successful. Watering is critical when the seedlings are young; keep the compost on the dry side. As the seed is so fine, thin before pricking out to allow the plants to grow. When large enough, either repot using the bark-peat-grit potting mix, or if the soil is warm enough and you have grown them in plugs, plant into the prepared garden.
  • Apart from these 3 species, the other species can only be propagated successfully by cuttings or division. Softwoods cuttings can be taken from the new growing tips of all the named varieties in spring. Use the bark-peat-grit mix of potting soil.
  • A number of varieties form a mat during winter. These lend themselves to division. In spring, or after flowering, dig up a whole clump and pull sections gently away. Each will come away with its own root system. Replant as desired.

Maintenance

  • Spring: Sow seeds. Divide established plants. Take softwood cuttings.
  • Summer: Trim after flowering to prevent plants becoming straggly. Divide established plants in late summer.
  • Fall: Before they die down for winter, cut back the year's growth to within 2 1/2 inches of the soil.
  • Winter: Protect pot-grown plants and tender varieties.

Harvesting

  • Leaves: Pick leaves whenever available for use fresh. They can be dried or frozen, or be used to make oil or vinegar.
  • Flowers: The flowers can be dried just as they open for dried flower arrangements.

Storage

  • Fresh oregano can be stored in refrigerator wrapped with a slightly damp paper towel. It can also be frozen in air tight containers or in ice cube trays covered with water or stock that can be added when preparing soups. Dried oregano should be stored in a tightly sealed container in a cool, dark, and dry place.


  • Oregano will generally grow as a hardy perennial herb. However, it is one that may need a little help in surviving gardening climates with harsh (cold) winters. For optimal growing conditions, plant your oregano patch in a very sunny (full sun) spot in your garden.


  • Oregano is an excellent source of Vitamin K. It is also a good source of manganese, iron and fibre. It is high in antioxidants due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids.
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 15mL (5g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 14
Total Fat 0.5g 1%
   Saturated Fat 0.1g 1%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 1mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 0g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 8%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 1g
Vitamine A 2%
Vitamine C 4%
Calcium 6%
Iron 15%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

Oregano-Crusted Lamb

Ingredients and Methods at http://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipes/Main/Herbs/recipe.html?dishid=8517

Steak with avocado salsa and oregano tomatoes

Ingredients and Methods at http://www.themainmeal.com.au/RecipesInspiration/RecipePage?RecipeID=369


  • Oregano leaves are used as medicinal herbs for headaches and pain relief.
  • This plant is one of the best antiseptics owing to its high thymol content.
  • Marjoram tea helps ease bad colds, has a tranquilizing effect on nerves, and helps settle upset stomachs. It also helps to prevent seasickness.
  • For temporary relief of toothache, chew the leaf or rub a drop of essential oil on the gums. A few drops of essential oil on the pillow will help you sleep.
  • Make an infusion and add to bath water to aid relaxation.


Information not available


Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp

Shoemaker, J.S. (1953). Vegetable Growing 2nd edition. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • In ancient times, Greeks and Romans considered oregano as a symbol of joy and happiness. Greek and Roman brides and grooms were crowned with laurel of oregano.
  • Oregano is derived from the Greek 'oros' meaning 'mountain' and 'ganos' meaning 'joy' and 'beauty'. It therefore translates literally as "joy of the mountain
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Oregano

Parsley

3594736493_13635c100b.jpg

Source: [1]


Common Name: Parsley, Cilantro

Scientific Names: P. hortense, P. sativum, Carum petroselinum

Family: N. O. Umbelliferae [3]


Parsley is an upright plant with many branches, reaching heights of 0.8 metres. It has green leaves and yellow-green flowers growing in clusters that extend from the main stem. Parsley also has thin and spindle-shaped roots, as well as erect, grooved, glabrous, angular stems [3].

Two types that are widely grown include curly-leaf or common parsley, and Italian parsley.

Curly-leaf parsley is usually dried or dehydrated in food products, but mostly used fresh as garnish, being quite versatile. It is typically 20-35cm tall, forming dense clumps, and good for borders or inter-planting in the garden beds [3].

Italian parsley, also known as flat-leaf or plain, is flat with crisped leaves. It can be used to flavour sauces, soups and stews. It can grow quite tall (2-3 ft; 1m) and is more gangly in habit, with a much stronger and sweeter flavour than other varieties [3].

Parsley is mostly cultivated as an annual culinary herb. It is considered a native of Eastern Mediterranean regions such as De Candolle of Turkey, Algeria and Lebanon. It is also widely grown in Europe and Western Asia [2].


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 10 years, on/off


Parsley grows well in a pH range 6 to 7 [3]. A partially-shaded position is best [2]; parsley grows well when it receives direct light for six to eight hours a day [3]. Ordinary, well-worked rich soil, but moist with good drainage, is needed for optimal parsley growth. Parsley becomes burnt and dry in very hot and dry summers - enough watering required in dry weather [3]. Like other leafy green vegetables, parsley needs overhead sprinklers or drop irrigation [3].

In spring, as soon as the soil is ready, the parsley seeds are sown into 150cm raised beds with three or four rows 45-55cm apart. Seeds should be covered a quarter inch (0.5cm) but in case of a heavy soil reach in minerals, the seeds should be covered with leaf mould or sand so that no crust is formed [3]. Seed may be sown in drills, or broadcast, edging, or between dwarf or short-lived crops. Usually, if the seeds are large enough, the seedlings are pricked out into rows [2].

Smooth ribbed and ovate seed germination rates are very low and irregular (3-6 weeks); therefore, pre-treatment soaking is recommended. Plants can be grown indoors and then transplanted to open prepared fields. Little shoots may then be added to the soil [2]. Transplants could be spaced 10-20 cm apart on 90 cm rows.

New growth is induced by cutting off of all leaves after watering well. Plants from previous years begin to grow in spring and runs to flower, but if the flower stems are removed promptly and then dressed and watered, the plant remains productive for longer.

The highest yields can be obtained with very high plant populations [3]. Thinning is required when the plant is about an inch high, and about 8 inches space between plants is recommended. A well-grown plant will cover nearly a square foot of ground.

Parsley plants must be kept clear of weeds [2]. Weed controlling herbicide is applied at the rate of 60 gallons per arch (90 l/ha) when the seedlings are two inches (5cm) tall and have three true leaves. Insecticides can be used with consultation if necessary [3].


For continuous supply, three sowings are needed:

  • early February: harvested in late spring or throughout summer.
  • April or early May: harvested in late fall or early winter
  • July and early August: harvested in winter and spring

The last is for the winter supply, grown in sheltered positions.

In Southern areas, late summer and autumn sowings are harvested in winter while in the north, harvesting can be continuous from April to December.

For multiple harvests, parsley should be cut at least 3 cm above the crown. Hand labour is the preferred method for minimal crop damage. [3]


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 63.4g (1 cup)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 23
Total Fat 0.5g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 36mg 2%
Total Carbohydrate 4g 1%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 8%
   Sugars 0.5g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 30%
Vitamine C 200%
Calcium 11%
Iron 40%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [1][4]

Salad


Sauce

  • Chimichurri from Simply Recipe - an Argentinean condiment that goes great with poultry, steaks, bread, or pasta.


It is recommended that parsley is stored and handled in relative humidity of 95% and at temperatures of 0 to 2 degrees Celsius. Parsley seed oil and herb oil should be stored in full tin-lined or other suitably lined containers, preferably made of glass. They should be kept in cool places protected from light. [3]


Roots and seeds:

  • The stems of parsley are dried and powered, both as culinary colouring and for dyeing purposes
  • The roots of the turnip-rooted variety are used as a vegetable and flavouring [2]
  • Herb oil comes from the above-ground herb, obtained through distillation
  • Seed oil comes from the seed
  • Stems are used for culinary colouring and dyeing by being dried and powdered [3]


Medicinal Action and Uses [3]:

  • In ancient times, parsley was used in medicinal concoctions for cure-alls, general tonics, poison antidotes, antirheumatics and formulations to relieve kidney and bladder stones.
  • Parsley juice can be used in treating hives and other allergy symptoms;
  • It has also been used as a liver tonic and helped in the breaking up of kidney stones [3].
  • Two-year-old roots and leaves are dried for Parsley Tea [2]
  • The parsley root can be used as a laxative and also helps to eliminate of kidney stones; roots can be used to relieve flatulence and colic due to its carminative action.[3]
  • Parsley can be used as a tasty breath freshener owing to its high chlorophyll content.
  • Parsley also speeds healing of bruises and soothes tired and lustre-lacking eyes.
  • The juice soaked in a pad can relieve earache and toothache.
  • Parsley can be used as a face wash to lighten freckles
  • The juice relieves itch and stings from insects bites; works amazingly well as a mosquito repellent.
  • Lactating women have used the leaves as poultice to relieve breast tenderness.
  • Powdered seeds are a folk remedy for hair growth and scalp stimulation if massaged into the scalp for three days.
  • Parsley also has strong antioxidant properties
  • Lice can be eradicated if parsley is used as a hair rinse [3]
  • Oil extracted from second year seeds are called Apiol (one of the compounds of the essential oil), which is of considerable curative value. [2]
  • The essential oil is used in commercial food flavourings and perfumes for men [3]


  • coming soon...


source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Parsley

Potatoes

ID-1002755-Suat-Eman.jpg

Photo by Suat Eman

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: not available (currently grown at LFSOG)


Latin Name: Solanum tuberosum


Common Varieties

Currently, the top 10 varieties grown in Canada are:

  • 1.Russet Burbank
  • 2.Shepody
  • 3.Superior:
  • 4.Atlantic
  • 5.Yukon Gold
  • 6.Chieftain
  • 7.Russet Norkotah
  • 8.Kennebec
  • 9.Ranger Russet
  • 10.Norland

Soil

  • The optimum soil pH for potato growth is 4.8 to 5.6. Potatoes do well in most soils but if the soil is sandy it is recommended to add organic material to the soil. Alkaline soils encourage scab, which are raised, corky scabs on the surface of the potato. Potatoes flourish is well-aerated, well-drained soils and therefore grow well in chunky soils. It is recommended to grow potatoes after corn or beans but not after tomatoes or peas.


Planting

  • Potatoes are grown from small tubers called seed potatoes. The seed potatoes are sprouted, which involves placing the rose end (the area with the most concentrated dormant buds) upwards in a light, cool, frost-free area. Seed potatoes are left for approximately 6 weeks to encourage growth of sprouts. Once shoots have formed, the seed potatoes can be cut into smaller pieces with at least 1 sprout in each piece for planting.
  • Early varieties should be planted in mid-spring. Earlies should be planted 12 – 15” apart with 15-20” between rows. The seed potato should then be covered with at least 1” of soil, taking care not to damage the shoots. Main crop varieties should be planted in late spring approximately 15” apart with 30” between rows.
  • Potatoes do well in open, sunny, frost-free sites. The crops need a constant supply of water to encourage optimum potato formation and the best yield. Potatoes must be “hilled up” every 2-3 weeks. The process of “hilling up” involves adding soil to the plants to ensure none of the developing potatoes are exposed to sunlight. Exposure to sunlight makes the potatoes turn green and become inedible. Green potatoes contain the toxic alkaloid Solanine which causes upset stomach and vomiting.


Harvesting

  • Potato crops take approximately 90-120 days to mature. Earlies are harvested in early to mid summer while the main crops are harvested in early to mid fall. Potatoes are harvested by lifting them out of the soil with a fork. For earlies, they are harvested when they are about the size of an egg. To harvest, lift the root and insert a flat-tined fork underneath the plant. Lift the whole plant out bringing the new potatoes up to the surface.
  • To harvest the main crop, cut the foliage of the plant back to about 2” above the soil or leave until the foliage dies down. Leave the potatoes in the ground for another 2 weeks to let the skins harden. Once the potatoes have hardened, lift the potatoes out with a fork. It is recommended to harvest potatoes on a dry, sunny day to allow the potatoes to dry in the sun for a couple of hours and then brush off any excess soil.


Storage

  • Early varieties are must be used as soon as they are harvested or must be preserved, either by freezing or canning. To freeze earlies, blanch for 3 minutes then drain and cool them. Pack them in hard containers and freeze.
  • Main crop varieties can be stored in paper or burlap bags in dark, cool, frost-free places. Main crop varieties, when stored properly, will usually last until the spring.
  • At home, the best place to store potatoes is in a cool, dark location in a paper or cloth bag.


  • Early varieties are sown in mid spring and harvested in early to mid summer.
  • Main crop varieties are sown in late spring and are harvested in early to mid fall.


  • Potatoes contain many vitamins and minerals essential for optimum human health. Potatoes are a good source of fiber, a good source of B vitamins and even supply vitamin C. An average sized-potato contains more potassium than a banana and has almost as much digestible protein as half a glass of milk.
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL diced (158g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 122
Total Fat 0.1g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 10mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 28g 9%
   Dietary Fiber 3g 12%
   Sugars 1g
Protein 3g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 50%
Calcium 2%
Iron 8%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

  • Potatoes are one of the most versatile vegetables. They can be baked, boiled, steamed, roasted, mashed, sautéed, fried. Potatoes can also be preserved by canning, freezing, or drying. Potatoes can be made into flour and baked into breads and baked goods. This is beneficial for people with gluten allergies. Potatoes can also be boiled resulting in the potato starch turning into glucose. This glucose is then fermented into alcoholic beverages, such as vodka.
  • Potatoes are classed as either waxy or floury. Waxy potatoes are translucent, feel moist and pasty, and have thin skins. Waxy potatoes generally stay firm and keep their shape making them ideal for salads, but they do not mash well. Examples of waxy potatoes include new potatoes (red and white), cherry red, and banana.
  • Floury or starchy potatoes have a drier feel and are more granular in appearance. Floury potatoes are best for baking and mashing as they produce the characteristic “fluffy mashed potato.” Examples of floury potatoes include Russet Burbank and Hertha.
  • There are also all-purpose potatoes that are a mixture of waxy and floury varieties. All-purpose potatoes can be used in almost any dish. Examples of all-purpose potatoes include Yukon Gold and Kennebec.


New Potato and Green Bean Salad (from Mrs. Sandra Lauzon)

Ingredients

  • 2 pounds Small New Potatoes, scrubbed
  • ¼ cup White Wine Vinegar
  • 3 tbsp. Chicken Stock
  • ⅓ cup Canola Oil
  • 1 tbsp. Dijon Mustard
  • 1 tsp. Sugar
  • 1½ tsp. Summer Savory, finely chopped
  • 1½ tsp. Basil, finely chopped
  • ½ tsp. Salt
  • ¼ tsp. Pepper
  • 1 pound Green Beans

Method

  • 1. Cook potatoes until just tender, run under cold water, and drain well. Quarter the potatoes and place into a large bowl.
  • 2. Add 4 tsp. of vinegar and chicken stock to the potatoes, let stand for 20 minutes.
  • 3. In a separate bowl, stir together the remaining vinegar, oil, mustard, sugar, savory, basil, salt, and pepper.
  • 4. Pour dressing over potatoes and stir gently to coat. Cover and chill for at least 4 hours.
  • 5. Trim green beans and cut into 1” pieces.
  • 6. Steam green beans until tender, chill under cold running water.
  • 7. Pat the green beans dry and wrap in a clean towel and chill until ready to serve.
  • 8. Just before serving, add green beans to potato mixture and toss gently.


Potato Leek Soup (Serves 4-6, from Agora manager Laura Hsu)

Ingredients

  • 3 large leeks, cut lengthwise, separate, clean. Use only the white and pale green parts, chop.
  • 1 small yellow onion, chopped
  • 2 Tbsp butter
  • 2 cups water
  • 2 cups chicken broth (or vegetable broth for vegetarian option)
  • 2 lbs potatoes, peeled, diced into 1/2 inch pieces
  • 1 bay leaf
  • ¼ cup chopped fresh parsley
  • ½ tsp dried basil
  • 2 teaspoons chopped fresh thyme, or ½ tsp dried thyme
  • Tabasco sauce or other red chili sauce
  • Salt & Pepper

Methods

  • 1. Cook leeks in butter with salt and pepper in a medium sized sauce pan. Cover pan, cook on low heat for 10 minutes. Check often. Do not brown leeks! Browning will give leeks a burnt taste.
  • 2. Add water, broth, and potatoes. Bring to a low simmer and cook for 20 minutes. Scoop about half of the soup mixture into a blender, puree and return to pan. Add marjoram, parsley, and thyme. Add a few dashes of chili sauce to taste. Add some freshly ground pepper, 1-2 teaspoons salt or more to taste.


Medicinal Uses

  • Historically, it was thought that carrying a potato in your pocket would help relieve sciatica and lumbago. It was also thought that the juice from a raw potato or the water leftover from boiling potatoes was said to relieve gout, rheumatism, lumbago, strains, and bruises. Pounded down raw potatoes were also said to be good for scalds and burns.
  • Green potatoes are toxic as they contain the alkaloid Solanine. To prevent potatoes from turning green, the potato must not be exposed to sunlight while growing or while in storage. Potatoes are sheltered from sunlight during growing as they are hilled up. It is important to store potatoes out of the sunlight at home as well to prevent them from turning green.
  • The other parts of the plant, including other fruits, flowers and leaves, are poisonous as well.


Information not available

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2008). Canada’s Potato Industry. Retrieved on March 23, 2010 from http://www.sea-ats.agr.gc.ca/pro/3639-eng.htm

Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books.

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp

Nova Scotia Agricultural College. (2010). Potato Consumer Research Initiative – Varieties. Retrieved on March 23, 2010 from http://nsac.ca/pcri/varieties.asp.


  • More than 50% of Canada’s potato crop was processed, mostly into French fries. Almost 10-15% of the crop is used for potato chips or dehydrated.
  • The main importer of Canadian potatoes and Canadian potato products is the United States.
  • Canada is also the second largest exporter of French fries, second only to the Netherlands!
  • In the past, potatoes were a source of starch powder for whitening wigs!
  • The juice from potatoes was used to clean silks, cotton, wool, and furniture!
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Potatoes

Pumpkin

4046983011_22b7363e48.jpg

source: [1]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: one/zero (Planted in 2009-UBC Farm Seed Log 2009)


Pumpkins require 90 to 120 days to mature, depending on variety and growing conditions. (Kovack, 2003)

  • It grows best at temperature of 23-29°C (75°F-85°F) day and 15°C-21°C (60°-70°F) night (OMAFRA, 2010)
  • It is grown well on warm and well-drained soil, and soil with rich organic matters and its pH is 5.5 to 7.5 (Kovack, 2003)
  • Pumpkin seeds are usually planted in hills; plant two to three seeds per hill about 1 to 1 ½ inch deep and thin to one plant per hill. Spacing varies with variety and vine size; 20 inches between bush varieties; 36 inches between vining varieties (Kovack, 2003)
  • Lot of compost and consistent watering are important (OMAFRA, 2010)
  • Bees and insects are required for pollination and fruit set (Kovack, 2003)
  • Protect the plant from weed, insects, and diseases(OMAFRA, 2010)
  • It is harvested when it is fully riped, and its skin is hard (OMAFRA, 2010)
  • Require warm, fairly dry storage conditions (OMAFRA, 2010)


  • Warm season (late may or early June) - Full-sun exposure


The pumpkin has beta carotene pigment, which gives bright orange color to its skin. The beta carotene is antioxidant substance that can be converted to vitamin A, and useful in the body. In addition, the beta carotene can reduce risk of some types of cancer, and also protet against heart disease and any disease that related to aging. (University of Illinois Board of Trustees, 2010)

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 32
Total Fat 0.12g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0.064g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 1mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 7.97g 3%
   Dietary Fiber 1.4g 6%
   Sugars 1.67g
Protein 1.23g
Vitamine A 60%
Vitamine C 20%
Calcium 2%
Iron 8%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Source: Health Canada

Pumpkin with garlic, ginger, lime - Agora


Ingredients:

• 20 lb pumpkin (cubed)

• 10 lb carrot (chopped)

• 20 T olive oil

• 100 g sugar or 100 ml honey

• salt and pepper

• minced gingerroot

• 5 heads chopped garlic

• optional: 100 g lime zest

• 1.5 L lime juice

• 1.5 L water


Instructions:

1. Combine ingredients on high

2. Bring to a boil, cover, turn to med-low heat and cook 5 minutes

3. Uncover raise heat, stirring occasionally until liquid has evaporated and its cooking in oil

4. Lower heat and cook until pumpkin is tender, add some stock if sticking

5. Add 30 L stock (or enough water to cover veggies) and turn heat to high

6. stir to mix syrup and scrape off bottom,

7. gently simmer 10 minutes

8. Puree soup

Pumpkin can be used as decorative objects, such as carving, decorating, painting, flower displays, and seed work. (Boisset, 1997)

Floral Thanksgiving Display (Boisset, 1997)


Equipments:

3 pumpkins, 1 large and 2 small

Storng kitchen knife

Craft knife

Florist's foam, soaked in water

8 tall candles, various length

Selection of seasonal flowers and trailing greenery

Thin curling ribbon

Scissors


Methods:

1. Find a pumpkin with a good stable base and no holes in the skin. Cut approximately one third off the top of the pumpkin.

2. Remove seeds and strings, then carve a zigzag pattern around the top edge, 1/2 inch / 1 1/4 cm deep to help the flowers sit around the top of the pumpkin.

3. Cut away the pulp from the top opening, then pack the pumpkin with the prepared florist's foam. Poisition the candles by pushing them into the florist's foam.

4. Next position three or four large flowers for structure. Arrange the smaller flowers, pushing them into the foam. Start from the outer edge of the pumpkin and work toward the center.

5. Create each ribbon tendril by pulling a piece of ribbon along the blade of a pair of scissors, making sure that the natural curl of the ribbon is face down on the scissors. If this process does not automatically create a curl, try turning the ribbon over and pulling it again.

6. Repeat the process using the small pumpkins. Use samller flowers and candles. Once the flolwer arrangements are complete, position the pumpkins, placing the smaller ones near the large display and decorate with tendrils of greenery and ribbon.


No available


Boisset, Caroline. (1997). Pumpkins & Squash. Quebec, QC: The Reader's Digest Association (canada) Ltd.

Health Canada. (2009). Chapter 6 - The Elements Within the Nutrition Facts Table. Retrieved March 31, 2010, from

   http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/labeti/guide/ch6e.shtml#a6_3

Health Canada. (2009). Pumpkin, Raw. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/report-rapport.do?lang=eng

Kovack, John T. (2003). Squash. Retrieved MArch 30, 2010, from http://www.ozaukeemastergardeners.org/JournalVegetablespdf/Squash.PDF

OMAFRA. (2010). Pumpkin and Squash Production. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/00-031.htm

Statistics Canada. (2009). The Pumpkin-A growing Vegetable. Retrieved MArch 30, 2010, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-621-m/11-621-m2004018-eng.htm

University of Illinois Board of Trustees. (2010). Pumpkin Nutrition. Retireved March 27, 2010, from http://urbanext.illinois.edu/pumpkins/nutrition.cfm

Wallace, Stephanie. (2006). Pumpkins. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/59105317@N00/256900424/

West Coast Seeds. (2010). Pumpkins. retireved MArch 27, 2010, from http://www.westcoastseeds.com/product/Vegetable-Seeds/Pumpkins/

- Pumpkins are a winter squash, and a member of the cucurbitaceae or gourd family, which includes squash, pumpkins, cucumbers, muskmelons, honeydew melons, cantaloupe, watermelons and zucchini. In addition, these plants are native to Central America and Mexico.(Statistics Canada, 2009)Furthermore, pumpkins, summer squash, watermelons, muskmelons, cantaloupes, and ornamental gourds are a member of the Cucurbitaceae family (commonly referred to as Cucumber, or Gourd family. These plants are also referred to as "cucurbits." (Kovack, 2003)

- Pumpkins are mature late in the season, stored well, and have a thick rind. (Kovack, 2003)

- Pumpkins have variety of flavors, shapes, colors, and sizes.

- Pumpkins are used at Hallowen Festival.


Below, they are types of Pumpkins that are grown at UBC Farm: (UBC Farm Seed Log 2009)

  • Wee-B-Little
  • Neon
  • Racer
  • Jamboree
  • Cinderella


Other varieties of Pumpkins:

  • Big Moon
  • Ealripack
  • Galeux d'Eysines
  • Howden
  • Jack of All Trades
  • Kakai
  • Little October
  • Lumina PVP
  • Prizewinner
  • Rouge vif d'Etampes
  • Small Sugar


Source: Statistics Canada

Source:West Coast Seeds

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Pumpkin

Radishes

3796095-organic-freshly-picked-radish-and-leaves-set-on-a-twig-matting-base.jpg

Photo by Simon Howden

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: not available (currently grown at UBC farm and LFSOG)


Latin Name: Raphanus sativus


Common Varieties

The two most common varieties are:

  • Cherry Belle: has crisp, white, mild flesh and is round
  • French Breakfast: generally long, mild, sweet, and tender

These are the two most common varieties. Many other varieties exist including ones found in Asian cuisine, which are called Mooli and Daikon.

Soil

  • Radishes do well in a light, moisture-retentive, free-draining soil. The optimum soil pH is 5.8 to 7.8. It is advised to remove stones from the soil, especially when growing longer-rooted varieties. Radishes flourish when the soil was manured for the previous crop.

Planting

  • Radishes are easy and quick to grow. Seeds can be sown every 2 weeks from mid spring to early fall. Seeds should be sown ½” deep and 6” apart as they do not like to be overcrowded. Radishes are a cool-weather crop therefore summer crops should be planted in light shade and surrounded by taller crops.

Harvesting

  • Harvest when the plant is 2-3” tall. The plant can be grown to 8-9” and the leaves can be cooked like spinach. Pull the plants immediately after they mature or they will become woody.

Storage

  • Radishes are best stored in a plastic bag in the refrigerator. They will stay fresh for approximately 1 week.


Radish crops are sown in the late spring and harvested throughout the summer.


  • While a radish is almost 90% water, they are a good source of Vitamin C, magnesium, and folate. Radishes also contain almost the same amount of potassium as bananas!
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL sliced (123g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 20
Total Fat 0.1g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 50mg 2%
Total Carbohydrate 4g 1%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 8%
   Sugars 3g
Protein 1g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 30%
Calcium 2%
Iron 4%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

  • Radishes are most often eaten raw as a salad vegetable. Radishes can be preserved by pickling them. They can also be cooked like a turnip (boiled, steamed, or roasted) which decreases their pungency and increases their sweetness.


Radish Slaw with New York Deli Dressing

Ingredients

  • 4 cups Radishes, shredded (about 40 radishes)
  • 2 cups Yellow Pepper, finely chopped
  • 1½ cups Carrot, shredded
  • ½ cup White Wine Vinegar
  • 4 tsp. Sugar
  • 1 tbsp. Fresh Dill, chopped
  • 1 tbsp. Olive Oil
  • ½ tsp. Salt
  • ½ tsp. Pepper


Method

  • 1. Combine radishes, yellow pepper, and carrot in a large bowl.
  • 2. In a small bowl, whisk together the remaining ingredients.
  • 3. Pour dressing over vegetables, toss well, serve immediately


Recipe from http://find.myrecipes.com/recipes/recipefinder.dyn?action=displayRecipe&recipe_id=604801.


Medicinal Uses

  • Many believe that eaten radishes will help relieve indigestions and flatulence. Radishes were often used as a tonic herb.


Information not available


Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books.

Fresh 1. (2010). The radishes are coming. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from http://www.thefresh1.com/radishes.asp.

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp

McGee, H. (2004). On food and cooking: The science and lore of the kitchen. New York, NY: Scribner.


  • Radishes belong to the mustard family
  • Radishes come in a variety of colours including red, pink, white, black, purple, and even lavender!
  • Radishes are considered one of the easiest and quickest vegetables to grow in a garden!
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Radishes

Raspberry

7557178230_25c94de2ca.jpg

Source: [1]


Scientific Name: Rubus idaeus or Rubus occidentalis, of the Rosaceae family [2]


There are two kinds of raspberries, red and black.

  • Red berries are usually known as cane berries because they grow on 3 – 6 feet erect stalks with many short thorns.
  • Black berries are domesticated forms grown in North America. In the Fraser Valley, there are ten different varieties of raspberries, common ones of which include the Meeker, Willamette, Qualicum, and Malahat [5].


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: a few years, more plants grown in 2007


Raspberries grow best in climates with cool summers and moderate winters, and hardiness toward the cold is a key requirement for raspberry varieties [2]. It requires rich soil, plentiful rainfall and sun-filled summer days [5].

The plant yields fruit in its second year after planting. During harvesting season, raspberries must be picked every 3-4 days [5].


Raspberries can be available all year round if frozen. However, harvesting begins in July and is available until mid-August, peaking in mid-July [5].


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 130g (1 cup)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 68
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 1mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 16g 6%
   Dietary Fiber 8.4g 34%
   Sugars 6g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 100%
Calcium 4%
Iron 9%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [1][4]

  • antioxidant and antimicrobial protection – raspberries contain ellagic acid, prevents unwanted cell damage by neutralizing free radicals in the body [5]
  • containing flavonoid products called anthocyanins – anthocyanins give raspberries their red colour and have antimicrobial ability, preventing overgrowth of certain bacteria and fungi [5]
  • good source of vitamin B, manganese and vitamin D (two antioxidant nutrients that protect the body from oxygen-related damage) [5]
  • source of riboflavin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid and vitamin B6 [5]

Dessert

Berry Tart from Simply Recipe

  • Features raspberry, blueberry, and strawberry. A perfect summer treat!


Breakfast/Dish/Dessert

Check out BC Raspberry for all the selections!


Storage

  • Raspberries should be quickly refrigerated in plastic and fiber containers, covered and shipped fresh [5].
  • Raspberries that are for processing should be washed, cleaned, sorted, then frozen by using IQF, put in blocks with juice, processed into purees, or made into juice or juice concentrate. The berries are fragile and do not transport well. It should be noted that they are usually hand picked [5].

Usage

  • Only 3% of raspberries are sold fresh, 97% are processed into jams, jellies, drinks, canned, frozen, bakery, or sold in packs.


  • coming soon...


  • 2. Deuel, C.L. & Plotto, A. (2005) Chapter 22. Strawberries and Raspberries .In Processing Fruits. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from CRCnetbase: www.crcnetbase.com
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Raspberry

Rhubarb

Rhubarb_P_E_.jpg

Photo taken from http://www.herbalextractok.com/Herbal-Extract/Rhubarb-P.E..html

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: not available


Varieties

  • Crimson Red
  • Early Champagne or Early Red
  • Glaskin's Perpetual
  • MacDonald
  • Tilden
  • Timperley Early
  • Valentine
  • Victoria

Growing

  • Rhubarb flourishes in an open, sunny position in deep, fertile, well-drained soil with a pH of 5.0-6.0. It is ideal for cool temperate zones. It is very hungry, with deep roots, so ensure that the soil contains well-rotted manure or compost. On very heavy soils, plant on ridges or raised beds.
  • Mulch plants every winter with a good, thick layer of well-rotted compost or manure. Do not allow them to flower unless you wish to save the seed, as this affects cropping the following year. Keep weed-free and watered, removing dead leaves instantly. In early spring, scatter a balanced general fertilizer around the crowns.

Maintenance

  • Spring: Force early crops under a bucket or similar.
  • Summer: Harvest stems.
  • Fall: When stems die back remove all plant debris.
  • Winter: Mulch with well-rotted compost or manure.

Harvesting

  • Do not harvest until 12-18 months after planting, taking only a few "sticks" in later years. Cropping can last from early spring to mid-summer. To harvest, hold the stems near the base and twist off. Avoid breaking the stems, as it can cause fungal problems. Do not overpick; it can weaken the plant.

Storage

  • Wrap rhubarb in plastic wrap and store it in the coldest part of the refrigerator for up to one week. Cooked and raw rhubarb both freeze well. Cut off and discard and leaves. Rinse and trim from base and tip. You may peel or cut with the skin intact.
  • To freeze, chop the stems into sections and place on an open tray, freeze for 1 hour before packing into plastic bags. This prevents the sections from sticking together. They can be stored for up to a year.


  • Rhubarb is a cool season, perennial crop. It requires temperatures below 40°F to break dormancy and to stimulate spring growth and summer temperatures averaging less than 75 °F for vigorous vegetative growth.


Warning: Do not eat the leaves, which are extremely poisonous!

  • Rhubarb is relatively low in calories. It contains a considerable amount of calcium and Vitamin C.
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL (129g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 27
Total Fat 0.3g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0.1g 1%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 5mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 6g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 8%
   Sugars 1g
Protein 1g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 15%
Calcium 10%
Iron 2%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

  • Remember to cook only in non-aluminum pots only due to the acidic nature of rhubarb.


Rhubarb strawberry macaroon cobbler

Ingredients and methods at http://www.canadianliving.com/food/rhubarb_strawberry_macaroon_cobbler.php

Rhubarb muffins or loaves

Ingredients and methods at http://www.canadianliving.com/food/rhubarb_muffins_or_loaves.php

  • Rhubarb is an astringent, stomachic, and potent laxative. Dioscorides recommend it for chest, stomach, and liver complaints, and ringworm.
  • By the 16th century, in Western Europe, it was taken as an infusion with parsley as a cure for venereal disease.


Information not available

Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp

Shoemaker, J.S. (1953). Vegetable Growing 2nd edition. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Shoemaker, J.S. (1953). Vegetable Growing 2nd edition. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Rhubarb

Rosemary

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Photo Courtesy of James Barker

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: not available


Latin name: Family name Lamiacae and Genus Rosmarinus


Varieties

Rosmarinus officinalis

  • Pale blue flowers in early spring to early summer/early fall.


Rosmarinus officinalis var. Albiflorus

  • White flowers in early spring to early summer/early fall.


Rosmarinus officinalis angustissimus

  • Corsican Rosemary: Blue flowers in early spring to early summer/early fall. It is bushier than the standard rosemary and has a very strong scent.


Rosmarinus officinalis Aureus

  • Golden Rosemary: pale blue flowers rarely develop; thin needle leaves are green with hints of gold.


Rosmarinus officinalis var. Angustissiumus

  • Benenden Blue Rosemary: dark blue flowers in early spring to early summer/early fall. Leaves are fine needles with pleasant aroma.


Rosmarinus officinalis “Fota Blue”

  • Attractive dark blue flowers in early spring to early summer/early fall with well spaced, narrow, needle-like, dark green leaves.


Rosemary officinalis Majorca Pink

  • Pink flowers in early spring to early summer/early fall with highly aromatic needle-shaped dark green leaves.


Cultivation

  • Rosemary is frost hardy but it helps to grow it against a south-or southwest-facing wall in cold areas.

Using cuttings for propagation is a good idea because you have control over the variety you desire. Cuttings include softwood, semi-hardwood, and layering

  • Softwood: cut approximately 6 inches from new growth in spring
  • Semi-hardwood: taken from non-flowering shoots in the summer
  • Layering: layer established rosemary branches in the summer

Growing Conditions

  • Rosemary prefers light and well-drained, relatively dry soil with lime. Wet soil has been known to inhibit growth. The desirable soil pH and growing temperature are 6.0-7.5 and 2-35°C, respectively. Rosemary can be grown from seeds. Plant seeds in spring at most 13mm deep and expect to see seedlings within 16-26 days. Once it germinates, careful not to overwater the seedlings. Keep seedlings in a pot for the first winter and then transplant thereafter.

Container Growing

  • In cold areas, rosemary does well in fitted pots. It does best when the roots are crowded. Use bark-peat-grit mix and make sure potting soil is well drained. Don’t overwater, and feed only after flowering.

Harvesting

  • Rosemary leaves can be picked year round. Following harvesting, dry the leaves as soon as possible to prevent extensive loss of natural essential oil. When dried carefully, in trays or by artificial heat not exceeding 40°C in well-ventilated, dark locations, leaves should retain both their green color and fresh, bittersweet flavour. Flavour is best before blooming.

Storage

  • Harvested stems and leaves can be placed on a screen to dry in a dark, well-ventilated area. Then, store them in airtight container.

Companion Planting (put in growing conditions)

  • If planted near carrots, it repels carrot fly. It is also said to be generally beneficial to sage.

Maintenance

  • Spring: Trim after flowering; take softwood cuttings
  • Summer: Take semi-hardwood cuttings; layer plants
  • Fall: Protect young tender plants.
  • Winter: Put mulch, straw, or frost fabric around all plants

Note: If trimming is necessary, do so when the frost season is over or better yet wait until after spring flowering.

  • Rosemary, evergreen perennial shrub, is also known as compass plant, compass weed, and polar plant. It can grow up to 2m tall. In its native climate, rosemary produces pale blue or bluish-lilac flowers during late winter-spring but it is possible that it may not flower in northern North America.


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 15 mL (1.7g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 2
Total Fat 0.1g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 0g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 0g 0%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 0.1g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 0%
Calcium 0%
Iron 0%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

  • Crushing rosemary leaves usually cause flavour loss. Rosemary is used in preparing many dishes; such as, lamb, casseroles, tomato sauces, vinegars, and oils.


Other uses

  • Make your house smell lovely by putting a few twigs of rosemary on a wood-burning stove. Rosemary is used in many herbal shampoos and has a reputation as a hair tonic. It apparently gives dark hair a natural shine when used in the final rinse.

Medicinal Uses

  • In traditional folk medicine, rosemary oil was used as cardiac and circulatory stimulant in addition to treating conditions like asthma, baldness, bronchitis, bruises, cancer, chills, colds, cough, dandruff, fever, headache, hysteria, insomnia, nervous tension, and rheumatism.
  • Similar to other essential oils, rosemary oil has antibacterial and antifungal properties, and is known to help with circulation if applied topically to affected joints. In addition, the oil may be used externally as an insect repellent.
  • Rosemary tea: put a teaspoon of chopped leaves into a cup and pour boiling water over them; cover and leave to stand for 5 minutes. Rosemary tea can be used as mouthwash. If consumed in small amounts, rosemary tea helps with reducing flatulence and stimulating smooth muscle of the digestive tract as well as increasing bile flow.
  • Antiseptic solution: boil a handful in 2 cups of water for 10 mins. This solution can be added to the bath to promote healthy skin.
  • Current research looks at rosemary’s acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and their potential therapeutic effects on Alzheimers’s. If proven to be therapeutic, rosemary shampoo may be beneficial since chemicals can cross the blood/brain barrier through dermal absorption.
  • Caution: Large doses of the leaf are toxic and can lead to convulsions and/or death. Rosemary is contraindicated for pregnant women due to its abortive effects if used in excess.


Information not available


Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp

Small, E. (1997). Culinary Herbs. Ottawa, ON: National Resource Council of Canada

  • Origin(s): southern Europe, Morocco and Tunisia situated among rocks and on dry, chalky hills
  • Rosemary, evergreen perennial shrub, is also known as compass plant, compass weed, and polar plant. It can grow up to 2m tall. In its native climate, rosemary produces pale blue or bluish-lilac flowers during late winter-spring but it is possible that it may not flower in northern North America.

History

  • Rosemary was cultivated by classic Greeks back in ancient Greek and Roman times and had been prevalently used in the Middle Ages as condiment for salted meat. Under Charlemagne’s reign, rosemary was cultivated on royal farms in central Europe but it is now widely cultivated throughout temperate regions.
  • The ancient Latin name for rosemary stands for sea-dew possibly attributed to its habit of growing close to the sea and its blossom’s dew-like appearance at a distance.

Connection to Christian faith

  • There is a myth that blue rosemary flowers were originally white but because Virgin Mary hid behind a rosemary bush and covered it with her cloak to hide from soldiers when the Holy family fled to Egypt, the blossoms turned blue in her honour. Another connection to the Christian faith is the fact that rosemary will grow for the duration of Christ’s life, 33 years and then die.
  • During Medieval times, rosemary was believed to grow only in the gardens of righteous and it was used as a magic charm for protection from witchcraft, particularly the evil eye.
  • In Elizabethan days, a sprig of rosemary worn on a wedding couple symbolized fidelity. Bunches of rosemary tied with gold tipped ribbons given to guests was used to symbolize love and faithfulness.
  • In the olden days, rosemary was burned to freshen and purify sick chambers. During the plague, people wore it around their neck in pouches and sniffed it regularly.
  • Rosemary was used as a funeral flower because it symbolized the memories of loved ones. It was also used to embalm the dead.
  • Did you know that ancient Greek students used to braid rosemary wreaths in their hair for examinations as rosemary was thought to fortify the brain and refresh their memory?
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Rosemary

Savory

"202803346_49d76d8c2a.jpg"

Source: [1]


Summer savory: Satureja hortensis.

Winter savory: Satureja montana.

Savory belongs to the Lamiaceae family. [1]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 4-5 years

The UBC farm currently has only winter savory.


Savory has optimal growth with sunshine and warmth. This plant is self-sufficient and easy to grow as long as the drainage of soil is kept in mind [1].

Summer savory is raised from seeds sown in early spring, with sufficient space between the plants [2]. It may grow up to 25 cm [1].

Winter savory is sturdier and generally has a stronger flavour, but both types have delicate aromas [1].


Summer savory is annual from spring to mid-summer, where winter savory is perennial, available from spring to December. [1]


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 100g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 272
Total Fat 6g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0g 0%
Total Carbohydrate 69g
   Dietary Fiber 46g
   Sugars 0g
Protein 7g
Vitamine A 26%
Vitamine C 148%
Calcium 190%
Iron 270%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


  • Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [3]

Cannellini Beans with Winter Savoury

  • Features variety of vegetables.
  • Recipe by Paul Wells - President of the Jersey Chefs’ Circle, 2004


Savory is used as seasoning when dried or powdered [2].

Summer savory was thought to be used in certain medications in the early 1900's, but more up to date research needs to be made [2].

Savory is high in certain mineral and vitamins by weight[3]. However, this herb is only consumed in small portions, so little is taken at each consumption.


  • coming soon...


source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Savory

Snow Peas

"2628923705_a2a3e3c6a5.jpg"

Source: [1]


Scientific name: Pisum sativum var. saccharatum


Classification: Snow peas are classified as part of the edible podded peas cultivar group, which means that their pods are edible and lack a stiff paper-like inner lining. Snow peas look flat and contain sugary seeds. [6]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 10 years, on/off


The growing conditions for snow peas are listed below:

  • Soil: well-drained, high in organic matter, pH 6.0 – 7.0. [2]
  • Sunlight: full sun exposure or with partial shade. (Snow peas yield best in full sun exposure.) [2]
  • Temperature: peas grow best between 13-18C [6]
  • Water: soil should be kept moist. Avoid heavy watering during flowering as it may interfere with pollination. Water early in the day to allow the parts aboveground to dry quickly. This helps avoid plant diseases such as powdery mildew. [2]
  • Planting: Plant seeds 1-2 inches deep and 1-4 inches apart in rows that are 18 inches apart. [2] When soil is cool and wet, shallow planting is best. [2] If soil is dry, consider planting deeper. [2] Plant seeds in spring, as soon as the soil is dry enough to till without sticking to gardening tools. [8] If planting in late spring and summer, pea seeds soaked for approximately an hour will help with growth in dry soil. [8]
  • Harvest: Sprouting occurs 6-14 days depending on soil conditions and temperature. [2] Snow peas are usually harvested prior to reaching full maturity, thus they are rather flat with little seeds visible via the pod walls. [7] Pods usually reach this stage approximately 5-7 days after flowering. [7] The pods matures to open pollinate seeds in 56 days. [8] Snow peas must be harvested regularly, approximately once every two days, for sweet, fiber-free pods. [7] To keep the plant healthy and extend the lifespan of the harvesting period, remove overgrown pods, which had missed an earlier picking, as soon as possible. [7]


Snow peas grow best in warm season, which includes mid-spring, late spring, early summer, and mid-summer. [2] Cool, damp weather is preferred. [8]


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 98g (1 cup, chopped)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 41
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 4mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 7g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 4g 10%
   Sugars 4g
Protein 3g
Vitamine A 22%
Vitamine C 98%
Calcium 4%
Iron 12%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [1][4]

Dishes:

Beef with Snow Peas from Allrecipes.com

  • An Asian style stir-fry served with rice


Vegetarian Option:

Snow Peas with Pine Nuts from Simply Recipes

  • Light and refreshing


Storage

  • Fresh peas are best consumed/served shortly after they are harvested and best consumed on the day of purchase. [3] If fresh peas are not consumed right away, they should be refrigerated because approximately half of the sugar content will turn into starch within 6 hours if kept at room temperature. [3] Fresh peas can be kept in the refrigerator for 2 to 3 days. [7] Do not wash the peas prior to storage and when storing in the refrigerator - they should be kept in a perforated plastic bag. [3]

Selection

  • Snow peas should be bright green in color, shiny and flat, with peas visible through the skin of the pod. Small pods are usually sweeter and more tender than larger ones. A few things to look for when selecting peas includes the firm and glossy appearance with a slight velvety feel. [3]

Preparation

  • Snow peas should be rinsed prior to consumption. [3]


Research:

  • The foundation of the study of genetics was formed by Gregor Johann Mendel (Jul 20, 1822 – January 6, 1884) with his experiment with the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants. [4]


  • 6. Tsao, S.J. & Lo, H,F. (2003) Chapter 1 Vegetables: types and biology. In Handbook of vegetable preservation and processing. Retrieved April 3 2010 from CRCnetbase: www.crcnetbase.com
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Snow_Peas

Spinach

4946895023_26ff7c3991.jpg

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/raptortheangel/4946895023/

Variety grown at UBC Farm: Tyee, Space

Variety grown at LFS Orchard Garden: Bloomsdale Savoy

Spinach grows best in moist soils with pH of about 6.0-7.0. Using grass clippings and straw mulch will help maintain the moisture levels in the soil and keep the soil temperature cool.

Plant seeds about 1cm deep during cool seasons or 2cm deep (for adequate moisture) during warm seasons in soil and approximately 7cm apart in rows that are 30-45cm apart. Seeds will begin sprouting within 21 days after planting. Spinach grows well in moderate to full sunlight and will bolt as the days get longer. Keep the soils moist, but not waterlogged, with regular watering. Watering from under the leaves reduces the risk of plant disease like downy mildew.

Spinach is ready for harvest about 40-50 days after planting. Pick leaves that are about 7-10cm long as needed or the whole plant can be harvested from the soil. Leaves should be picked from the outer layers so that the inner leaves can continue to grow for continuous crop production.

Spinach grows relatively well in cool climates during the spring and fall seasons, but may be grown continuously throughout summer if the temperatures are mild.[4]

Spinach is a source of many phytochemicals that have potentially anticarcinogenic and antioxidant effects for the body including carotenoids, flavonoids, and chlorophyll.[1] These phytochemicals can inhibit carcinogenesis by inducing expression of detoxification enzymes that convert xenobiotics into polar and water-soluble compounds that can be excreted from the body.[1] Spinach is also a good source of vitamin K.[2] In addition to its hemastasis role, vitamin K has been associated with reduced bone fracture risk due to its effects on bone geometry.[2] The relatively high vitamin C and vitamin A contents in spinach provide antioxidant effects by reducing the levels of free radicals found in the body.[3] These vitamins can also decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease by preventing oxidation of fats, which can easily accumulate in blood vessel walls blocking and disrupting linear blood flow.[3] Other health benefits can include: lowered risk of cognitive decline, anti-inflammatory effects, strengthening eyesight, and improving energy.[3]

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL (raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 7
Total Fat 0.1g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 25mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 1.2g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 0.7g 3%
   Sugars 0.13g
Protein 0.9g
Vitamine A 15%
Vitamine C 15%
Calcium 3%
Iron 6%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrition facts derived from data provided by Health Canada

Spinach Phyllo Triangles - recipe by Arnie Livingston

3924169471_e433b3da37.jpg

Source

INGREDIENTS

1 pkg. (10 oz.) frozen chopped spinach

1/2 cup diced onion

1 clove garlic, minced

6 oz. feta cheese, finely crumbled

1/2 tsp. dried and crushed oregano

12 sheets phyllo dough

1/2 cup melted butter

1 tbsp. olive oil


INSTRUCTIONS

Cook spinach according to package directions. Drain in colander. Press the back of a spoon against the side of the colander to press out all excess moisture.

Meanwhile, in hot skillet with 1 tbsp. olive oil, brown onion lightly and then add garlic and cook for approximately one minute. Drain any excess liquid. Combine pressed spinach, onion, garlic, feta cheese and oregano.

Brush one sheet of phyllo with some melted butter. Add another phyllo sheet and brush with butter. Add a third layer and brush with butter. Cut the phyllo lengthwise into six strips.

Spoon one tablespoon of filling onto the end of a strip. Fold the end over the filling at a right angle. Continue to form a triangle, end over end. Do this with all six strips of phyllo. Brush all finished triangles with butter. Now complete the remaining phyllo sheets in the same manner.

Bake in a 375°F oven for 20 minutes, or until lightly browned.


OTHER RECIPES:

Creamed Spinach

Spinach Artichoke Dip

Spinach Lasagna

Spinach Quiche

Fresh spinach should be stored loosely in a bag in the refrigerator. Avoid pre-washing the spinach as extra moisture will cause the leaves to wilt and spoil faster.

Currently none

[1] Waladkhani, A.R. , & Clemens, M.R. . (2008). Dietary phytochemicals in prevention and therapy of cancer [pp. 377-387]. Retrieved from

http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=j5PdVtMgVLYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA377&dq=phytochemicals+in+spinach&ots=n67Er4H4AX&sig=l5c8Wpr2_3Bg-HMt-t_mgHUw7Tw#v=onepage&q=phytochemicals%20in%20spinach&f=false

[2] Pearson, D.A. . (2007). Bone health and osteoporosis: the role of vitamin k and potential antagonism by anticoagulants. Nutrition in Clinical Practice , 22, 517-544.

[3] The World's Healthiest Foods. (2010). Spinach. Retrieved from

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=43#healthbenefits

[4] USA Gardener. (2010. How to Grow Spinach. Retrieved from

http://usagardener.com/how_to_grow_vegetables/how_to_grow_spinach.php
  • "A la Florentine" refers to a dish prepared on a bed of spinach. The phrase originated from Europe when Catherine de Medici from Florence, Italy, left her home to marry the king of France, King Henry II. It is thought that spinach was one of her favourite foods and she had dubbed any dishes containing spinach "Florentine".[3]
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Spinach We were not able to Retrieve the content of this page, at this time.
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Strawberry

510249893_a660bfd7b6.jpg

Source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: #

There are three general types of strawberries including June Bearing, Ever Bearing and Day Neutral. The three types differ in times and season of fruit bearing and fruit sizes (1). Strawberry plants are perennial and have shallow root systems (3). Like many small fruits, strawberry planting requires extensive attention from the farmers. The plants require full sunlight access with 6 to 8 hours per day (2). Strawberries prefer dry and well drained sandy loam soil with pH value ranging between 5.8 and 6.2 (2). Because of its high water content of 95%, strawberries require water supply. To maintain relatively dry soil conditions and adequate supply of water needed by strawberry, it is strongly recommended to have high content of organic matter. This way, moisture can be sustained without sacrificing the dry conditions (2). Additionally, it is strongly suggested not to grow strawberries in lands where tomatoes, potatoes, peppers or eggplants used to grow. This is due to the possible Verticillium Rot associated with these plants (1).


Strawberries are summer food with harvest staring mid June until fall, depending on the variety (1). June Bearing is generally planted in early fall and harvest during 2 to 3 weeks of June. It produces large fruits with many runners. Ever Bearing produces fruits during spring, summer and fall. Yet there are not many runners from this type of strawberry. Day Neutral produces throughout the growing season but its fruits are not very big (1).


It is commonly known that the high potency of Vitamin C strawberries provide is very beneficial for general health (5). Besides vitamin C, there are also many other phytonutrients and antioxidants that help fighting against free radicals (5). Those chemicals include vitamin K, folic acid, riboflavin, B vitamins.

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 100 g
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 32
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 8g 0%
   Dietary Fiber 9%
   Sugars 4%
Protein 1%
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 100%
Calcium 2%
Iron 3%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

Strawberry & Lemon Curd Trifle

Trifles are a decadent dessert full of contrasting flavors and textures. Beautiful to look at and delicious to eat. This Strawberry and Lemon Curd Trifle is no exception. It starts with a layer of buttery pound cake, followed by a layer of strawberry sauce and fresh strawberries, then a layer of tangy and smooth lemon curd, that is tempered by a layer of softly whipped cream. If you eat it right away the flavor of each layer is distinct but if you leave it to chill in the fridge for a few hours, the flavors all start to soften and mingle.

So let's begin. Since this trifle recipe has quite a few layers, it is a good idea to make what you can ahead. That way all you need to do is put all the layers together the day you need the trifle. So you can make the cake, strawberry sauce, and lemon curd ahead of time. In fact, you can make and freeze the pound cake up to a month ahead and the strawberry sauce and lemon curd can be made up to a week in advance and simply stored in the refrigerator. Also, the beauty of the trifle is that variations exist for every layer. If you don't like pound cake, use a sponge cake, a butter cake, or even ladyfingers. Although I have not soaked the cake in alcohol, you can sprinkle the cake with a little sherry or Grand Marnier. And while I have used strawberry sauce you could replace it with another fruit sauce or even a jam or preserve. Other berries or even peaches, pears, kiwi can be used for the strawberries. The next layer is typically a custard or pastry cream followed by whipped cream. For this recipe, I have replaced the more traditional custard with lemon curd, followed by the softly whipped cream. The trifle is finished with crushed Amaretti cookies or shortbread cookies (store bought or home made). Toasted nuts or fruit could also be used to decorate the top of the trifle.

Read more about the English Trifle.


Trifle: Have ready the pound cake, the strawberry sauce, sliced strawberries, lemon curd, and whipping cream.

To make the whipping cream: In the bowl of your electric mixer, or with a hand mixer, beat the cream, sugar, and vanilla extract until stiff peaks form.

To assemble: In the bottom of your trifle bowl place slices (about 1/3 inch thick) of the home made or store bought pound cake. Fill in any gaps with pieces of the cake. Pour half of the strawberry sauce over the pound cake. Top the strawberry sauce with half of the sliced strawberries. Then pour half of the lemon curd over the strawberries. Top with half of the whipped cream. Repeat the layers. Cover and refrigerate for 8 and up to 24 hours to allow the flavors to mingle. Just before serving sprinkle the top of the trifle with the crushed Amaretti or shortbread cookies.

Serves about 10 people.

Note: This trifle can also be made into about eight individual servings (as shown above). Simply follow the recipe for the large trifle only instead of using a large trifle bowl, use small glasses (about 1 cup (240 ml)). Makes about 8 individual servings (depending on the size of your glasses).


Components of Trifle:

Pound Cake (home made or store bought) (can also use a sponge or butter cake or ladyfingers)

1 1/2 cups (360 ml) Strawberry Sauce

1/2 pound (225 grams) fresh strawberries, sliced

1 1/2 cups (360 ml) Lemon Curd (home made or store bought)

1 1/2 cups (360 ml) heavy whipping cream

2 - 3 tablespoons (25 - 35 grams) granulated white sugar

1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract

4 crushed Amaretti Cookies or shortbread cookies (home made or store bought)

Read more: http://ip-67-205-115-66.static.privatedns.com/StrawberryLemonCurdTrifle.html#ixzz0lHwIoHSA

In addition to the modern knowledge on the nutrition of strawberries, the ancient medicinal uses of strawberries are also very fascinating (5). The leaves of wild strawberries are used as a diuretic, aching throat; the plants are used to treat diarrhea, dysentery and ingredients for lotions that treats burns (4).


source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Strawberry

Sugar Snap Peas

"2564699841_c259f276e2.jpg"

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/19209272@N00/2564699841/


Scientific name: Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon


Classification: sugar snap peas are a cross between snow peas and garden peas. [7] They are classified in the edible podded peas cultivar group, which means their pods are edible and lack a stiff paper-like inner lining. [6] Sugar snap peas contain sugary seeds, have a slightly thicker wall and their pods are round. [6]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: 10 years on/off


The growing conditions for sugar snap peas are listed below:

  • Soil: should be well-drained, high in organic matter, pH 6.0 – 7.0. [2]
  • Sunlight: full sun exposure or with partial shade. (Sugar snap peas yield best in full sun exposure.) [2]
  • Temperature: peas grow best between 13-18 degrees Celsius [6]
  • Water: keep soil moist. Avoid heavy watering during flowering as it may interfere with pollination. Water early in the day to allow the parts aboveground to dry quickly. This helps avoid plant diseases such as powdery mildew. [2]
  • Planting: plant seeds 1-2 inches deep with 1-4 inches apart in rows that are 18 inches apart. [2] When the soil is cool and wet, shallow planting is best. [2] If the soil is dry, consider planting deeper into the ground. [2] Plant seeds in spring, as soon as soil is dry enough to till without sticking to gardening tools. [8] If planting in late spring and summer, pea seeds soaked for approximately an hour will help with growth in dry soil. [8] Note that sugar snap peas will require a trellis for support due to vining habits. [2]
  • Harvest: Sprouting occurs 6-14 days depending on soil conditions and temperature. [2] The pods matures to open pollinate seeds in 115 days. [8] Pods are picked when they look pumped and bright green in color. [8] Sugar snap peas should be picked every 1-3 days for best quality. [7] Sugar snap peas are at their best before the seeds grow very big and when they first begin to look slightly flattened. [7] If they are left too long on the plant, the pod will begin to develop tough fibers in the wall, then they must be shelled, the pod discarded and only the pea inside may be consumed. [7]


Sugar snap peas grow best in warm seasons, which include mid-spring, late spring, early summer, mid-summer. [2] Note that sugar snap peas prefer cool, damp weather. [8]


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 98g (1 cup, chopped)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 41
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 7g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 10%
   Sugars 4g
Protein 3g
Vitamine A 22%
Vitamine C 98%
Calcium 4%
Iron 12%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet

Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [1][4]

Recipes and other culinary uses can be found below:


Vegetarian Option:


Storage

  • Fresh peas are best consumed/served shortly after they are harvested and consumed on the day of purchase. [3] If fresh peas are not consumed right away, they should be refrigerated because approximately half of the sugar content will turn into starch within 6 hours if kept at room temperature. [3] Fresh peas can be kept in the refrigerator for 2 to 3 days. [7] Do not wash the peas prior to storage and when storing in the refrigerator - they should be kept in a perforated plastic bag. [3]

Selection

  • Sugar snap peas should be bright green in color, pump and firm. A few things to look for when selecting peas include the firm and glossy appearance with a slight velvety feel. [3]

Preparation

  • Sugar snap peas should be rinsed prior to consumption. For a better mouth feel, the strings on the pods should be removed prior to cooking or eating. The strings run along the sides of the pod and can be easily removed by pulling upwards from the bottom tip. [3]


The foundation of the study of genetics was formed by Gregor Johann Mendel (Jul 20, 1822 – January 6, 1884) with his experiment with the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants. [5]


  • 6. Tsao, S.J. & Lo, H,F. (2003) Chapter 1 Vegetables: types and biology. In Handbook of vegetable preservation and processing. Retrieved April 3 2010 from CRCnetbase: www.crcnetbase.com
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Sugar_Snap_Peas

Sweet Corn

612YukonChief.jpg

Photo taken from http://corditecountryshownotes.files.wordpress.com

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: On and off for 10 years/ None

Corn will grow on most soil types but it may not necessarily mature at an appropriate time. Corn is a heavy feeder and it is recommended that adding manure or compost with fertilizer and mixing them thoroughly with the soil below seed furrow will provide the best results. Corn ear development is controlled by the amount of heat provided to the seeds. It is recommended that once sowing is complete to not water the soil as this will lower its temperature (Solomon, 2000). Seeds form and the tassel will appear once a corn plant has had an adequate amount of heat. Depending on the variety, a temperature of at least 15 degrees Celsius or higher is suitable for corn seeds to germinate, and even higher for sweet corn (about 18 degrees Celsius). Seeds will not germinate below temperatures of ~12.8 degrees Celsius (Johnny's Seeds, 2010).

Pollination occurs by wind-blown corn pollen. To ensure adequate pollination corn is planted in blocks of at least four rows wide by at least 10 feet long. Corn grows best when grown as single stalks far apart in rows as opposed to clusters. One plant spaced apart 10 inches in rows 30 inches apart is suffice (Solomon, 2000). Corn patches should be well watered until the tassels appear in which pollen can then be released. The tassel is the male pollen- producing flower of the corn plant and consists of stemmy flowers that grow from the top of the corn stalk (also known as the apex). Before a corn will tassel, it must grow a certain number of leaves within a 30 to 40 day period. Tassels will begin to grow once the majority of the corn stalk is complete. The pollen produced by the tassels must be wind- blown to reach the silks, otherwise known as the female flower of the corn plant. Once pollinated the ears of the corn are ready to begin growing (Johnny's Seeds, 2010).

Growing conditions for sweet corn vary compared to regular corn. The seeds of sweet corn are smaller than regular corn and tend to have more seeds per round. Sweet corn also requires twice as much moisture for germination than regular corn and should not be subjected to dry soil planting. Planting of seeds in a uniform depth and on the shallower side is also more important with this type. Harvesting sweet corn a few days late will not effect the tenderness and sweetness of the corn due to the plumper kernel grades. When the ear silks have begun to dry and brown and the kernels appear full and "milky", it is time to harvest the corn (Johnny's Seeds, 2010).

Generally sweet corn is grown between mid May and mid June. It can only be grown between the last spring frost and the beginning of the fall frost season due to its high sensitivity to frost (Solomon, 2000). The warmer the weather the earlier the vegetable will mature (Johnny's Seeds).

Sweet corn is an excellent source of nutrients particularily thiamin (vitamin B1), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), folate, dietary fiber, vitamin C, phosphorus and manganese. A single cup of corn provides 19% of the daily value of folate, a B-vitamin that plays a significant role in cardiovascular health and fetal development(The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).

It is also abundant in a carotenoid called beta-cryptoxanthin also found in pumpkin, papaya, red bell peppers, and peaches. Beta-cryptoxanthin is a provitamin with the ability to be converted into vitamin A. Recently this carotenoid has received much attention for its anti-aging and anti-cancer potential. Research has demonstrated a link between beta-cryptoxanthin and a lower incidence of lung and colon cancer (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).

In the presence of heat the sugar molecules within the corn kernels are rapidly converted to starch. To prevent loosing the sweetness and tenderness of the kernels it is recommended that corn be stored in a plastic bag in a cool place out of sunlight, such as the refridgerator. To retain the maximum amount of flavor of fresh corn remove the husk (leafy outer covering) only prior to cooking (The World's Healthiest Foods, 2010).

Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 1 Medium Ear of Corn (90g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 77
Total Fat 1g 1%
   Saturated Fat 2g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 14mg 1%
Total Carbohydrate 17g 5%
   Dietary Fiber 2.5g 10%
   Sugars 3g
Protein 3g
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 10%
Calcium 0%
Iron 3%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Note: Nutritional information derived from data provided by Health Canada.

Corn Chowder with Chipotles

Corn chowder is often considered a comfort food. This dish has numerous variations suitable for everyone's taste! Soups like corn chowder make for a great lunch or dinner dish. A popular tend among local restaurants in Vancouver has been to use seasonal and locally grown vegetables in soups, salads, and stews providing customers with new and fresh dishes. Corn Chowder with Chipotles would be a great addition to any menu especially local restaurants like Rancity Grill, Pair Bistro, and Nu who pride themselves in their seasonal soups as well as their support for the UBC Farm. These restaurants feature various produce purchased from the UBC Farm on their menus (http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/).

Corn_Chowder_with_Chipotles_003.jpg

Source


INGREDIENTS

3 strips smoked bacon

1 onion, chopped

2 cloves garlic, minced

2 stalks celery, chopped

3 cups chicken stock

2 medium potatoes, peeled and diced

1 sweet red pepper, diced

3 cups corn kernels

½ to ¾ cup whipping (35 %) cream (125 to 175 ml)

1/2 chipotle pepper (in adobo sauce), minced, or to taste

milk, to taste

coarse salt and freshly cracked black pepper

1 tablespoon chopped fresh cilantro (15 ml)


DIRECTIONS

Cook bacon in a large saucepan over medium-high heat just until crisp. Remove bacon and drain on paper towel. Set aside. Reserve 1 tbsp. of bacon in the saucepan and remove some of the bacon fat from pan and discard. Use the same saucepan to cook the chowder. Reduce heat to medium and add onion, garlic and celery to the saucepan. Sauté until soft, about 5 minutes. Add stock and potatoes and bring to a boil. Cover and simmer for 10 minutes, until potatoes are slightly tender. Add red pepper, corn, whipping cream, chipotle pepper and continue to cook for another 10 minutes or until vegetables are soft. Crumble reserved bacon and stir into soup. If chowder is too thick, adjust with ¼ cup of milk and just reheat until steaming. Season with salt and pepper and stir in cilantro. Serve.

Courtsey of Christine Cushing from Christine Cushing Live.

Holiday wreaths can be made from the tassels of corn stalks, wire coat hangers, a hot glue gun, flora wire, and decorations.

None so far

BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. (2010) Retrieved from http://www.al.gov.bc.ca/aboutind/products/plant/corn.htm

Corn Chowder with Chipotles Recipe. (2010) Christine Cushing from Christine Cushing Live. Retrieved from http://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipes/Soup/Pepper/recipe.html?dishid=4657

Johnny's Seeds. (2010). Sweet Corn. Retrieved from http://www.johnnyseeds.com/assets/pdf/Sweet%20Corn%2010GoldenRules.pdf

Solomon, S. (2000). Growing vegetables west of the Cascades : the complete guide to natural gardening. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books

The World's Healthiest Foods. (2010). Sweet Corn. Retrieved from http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=9

  • Corn is also known as Zea Mays and belongs to the Gramineae family. BC produces 18 million kilograms of sweet corn annually which constitutes about 5% of Canadian production. Three-quarters of the corn grown is used by the processing industry.
  • Sweet corn, which is the corn that we eat fresh, is the result of a gene mutation that occurred sometime in the 1800s in the United States. As a result this mutation prevents the sugar in the endosperm of the kernel from being converted to starch thus increasing the sugar concentration per kernel and the sweetness (BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 2010).
  • The growth of corn is dependent on adequate heat such that the heat unit (HU) was developed to quantify the ideal heat conditions required for maturity. Heat units are calculated by summing the number of hours during a 24-hour period that had a temperature below 10 degrees Celsius then multiplying this number by the number of hours the temperature was above 50 degrees Celsius. To ripen, the earliest maturing sweet corn varieties required approximately 1300 HU; whereas, later maturing varieties may required more than 2200 HU (Solomon, 2000).

Lessons from the UBC Farm:

  • Difficulty of Growing: 3 (on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the easiest and 5 is the most difficult)
  • Plant early using early maturing varieties and hope for a sunny hot summer as this crops needs copious amounts of sun. Sweet corn must be manually pollinated if growing a small numbers of plants (Tim Carter, UBC Farm Production Coordinator, personal communication, March 16, 2010).
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Sweet_Corn

Sweet Potatoes

2850269642_0ff40a2c09.jpg

Source: [1]

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: Not available


Common names: Kumara, Louisiana Yam, Yellow Yam.


Varieties:There are three categories to classify the 100’s of different varieties of sweet potatoes and these three categories are: dry and mealy fleshed, soft and moist fleshed, and coarse fleshed (used as animal feed). White or pale types are floury with a chestnut-caremel flavor, while yellow and orange varieties are sweet and watery.

  • Propagation: Take cuttings from healthy shoots 8-10in. long from below a leaf joint, removing basal leaves. Alternatively pack numerous healthy tubers in a tray of moist potting mis and sharp sand, vermiculite or perilite and place in a warm greenhouse or hotbed. With shoots 9-12in. long, cut them off 2in. above the soil and take the cuttings as described above. ( 3 potatoes roughly produce 24 cuttings, enough for a 25-ft. row.) Plant the cuttings about 3-4.5 ft. apart, leaving half the stem exposed. Instead of cuttings, planting small tubers 3-4in. deep along the top of a ridge on sandy, free draining soil on level ground.
  • Sweet potatoes’ optimal growing conditions are in tropical or subtropical climates where temperatures reach 70-77°F. Leaves and tubers can be damaged or killed by light frosts. Annual rainfall of 30-50 in. is ideal, with wet weather in the growing period and dry conditions for the tubers to ripen. The tuber production is fastest and sugar production highest when day length exceeds 14 hours. Ideal soil conditions are to be moisture-retentive and free-draining with a pH of 5.5-6.5. If necessary, well-rotted organic material can be dug in before planting and watering is rarely needed if planted at the start of the rainy season. Stem development rather than tubers are encouraged with excess nitrogen. Once established, distribute a high-potash granular fertilizer around plants and occasionally lift vines from the ground- this will prevent rooting at the leaf joints. Be sure to rotate crops.
  • Protection:: Grow undercover in a cool temperature zone where the minimum temperature is 77°F. Take cuttings from healthy shoots of mature plants and insert around 4 cuttings around the outside of a 6-in. pot and fill with potting mix. Maintain moisture with tepid water and regular misting once the cuttings have been transplant into a greenhouse, provided a good root system has formed. Prune stems to be 24 in. at the longest; this will encourage side-shoots and also, from late winter, aid in congested growth.

With Container Growing, grow in pots or containers 12in. deep and 15in. wide along with loam-based potting mix and moderate fertilizer levels. Use supports.


Storage

  • Provided the conditions are good, tubers will ripen in 4-5 months. When slightly immature or until waiting till vines begin to yellow, lift the tubers carefully and avoid bruising. Either use fresh to store once dried in a cool dark place for up to a week.


Pests & Diseases:

  • Leaves can suffer from leaf spot and sooty mold; black rot appears at the base of the stem where brown rot appears at the tuber so be sure to check stored tubers regularly; susceptible to white fly or red spider mite when under cover.


Maintenance by season is important to ensure crop vitality.

  • Spring: take cuttings under cover, keep warm and moist.
  • Summer: keep cuttings weed-free, water well, feed, and prune as necessary.
  • Fall: Harvest. Save some tubers for the next crop.
  • Winter: keep compost slightly moist.


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250mL cubes (141 g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 121
Total Fat 0.1g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 75mg 3%
Total Carbohydrate 28g 9%
   Dietary Fiber 4g 16%
   Sugars 6g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 100%
Vitamine C 6%
Calcium 4%
Iron 6%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File


Healing properties: antioxidant-rich and anti-inflammatory ridding body of free radicals that cause cancer and heart disease, excellent source of Vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene), very good source of Vitamin C and manganese.


Concerns: contain oxalates in small numbers yet are measurable enough to suggest avoiding if one has existing kidney or gallbladder problems. Oxalates can also disrupt calcium absorption

Sweet Potato Apple Cake (Serves 9)

Sweet potatoes and apples add moistness and natural sweetness to this simple cake.

Ingredients

  • Natural cooking spray 

  • 1 cup whole wheat pastry flour
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt 

  • 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon 

  • 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg 

  • 1/2 cup brown sugar 

  • 1 egg 

  • 1 large apple, peeled, cored and grated 

  • 1 (3/4-pound) sweet potato, peeled and grated 

  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • 1/2 cup chopped walnuts


Method

Preheat oven to 350°F. Lightly oil an (8-inch) baking pan with cooking spray; set aside. 

In a large bowl, whisk together flour, baking soda, salt, cinnamon and nutmeg; set aside. In a second large bowl, whisk together sugar and egg until well combined. Stir in apple, sweet potato, vanilla and walnuts and then add apple mixture to flour mixture and stir to combine. 

Transfer batter to prepared pan and bake until cake pulls away from the edges and is deep golden brown, 40 to 50 minutes. Set aside to let cool and then cut into squares and serve.


Sweet potato dhal (from Agora manager Laura Hsu)

Ingredients

  • 12 Tbsp vegetable oil
  • 6 large yellow onions
  • 9 cups of red lentils
  • 4 tsp tumeric
  • 6 medium sweet potatoes, diced into 1 inch cubes
  • 6 jalapenos, minced
  • 1 bunch of cilantro
  • 3 28 oz cans of tomato or 8 fresh tomatoes
  • 10 cups water


Method

  • Saute onions, with oil until golden.
  • Boil lentils for 30 minutes
  • Add sweet potato, turmeric, jalapeno, and tomatoes boil (at simmer) until potatoes are tender
  • Add cilantro and serve


  • Medicinal: Antibacterial and fungicidal substances are found in sweet potatoes and their leaves which are used in folk medicine.


  • Preparation Tips: If purchasing organically grown, you can eat the whole tuber:flesh and skin; if peeling, you should cook immediately to prevent darkening upon contact with air; there are nutritional advantages to roasting over boiling.


Information not available


Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp


  • In Shakespeare’s day, sweet potatoes were sold in crystallized slices with sea holly as an (“eringo”) aphrodisiac. In, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Falstaff cries: “let the sky rain potatoes…hail kissing comforts and snow eringoes.”
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Sweet_Potatoes

Thyme

"1066243517_138d3a9e77.jpg"

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/88951160@N00/1066243517/


Common Name: common thyme, garden thyme [4]

Scientific Name: Thymus vulgaris L. [4]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: about 10 years


Thyme is native to southern Europe, from Spain to Italy, and commonly cultivated in most mild-temp and subtropical climates. It is grown from seed, in light, dry calcareous soil, but can tolerate poor soils and drought once the plant is “established” [4]. During seedling establishment, beds should be always moist but not wet.

Thyme thrives in full sun, but tolerates partial shade. It grows best at temperatures from 7 to 20 degrees Celsius, and if soil pH is less than 5.5, agricultural lime should be added to the soil. It should be noted that nitrogen and fertilizers can increase yield, but weed control is hard [4].

Thyme is in season in summer, but also available all year, flowering in June [2]. In Spain, it is usually harvested during February to August.



Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 100g (fresh)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 101
Total Fat 2g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 9mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 25g 8%
   Dietary Fiber 14g 56%
   Sugars 0g
Protein 6g
Vitamine A 24%
Vitamine C 266%
Calcium 36%
Iron 124%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [3]

Thyme also has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties [4].

Vegetarian Option

Blueberry peach fruit salad with thyme from Simply Recipes

  • A perfect summer treat.


Zucchini with thyme from Simply Recipes

  • A dish sautéed in butter and olive oil.


Storage

  • Thyme should be kept in the refrigerator for up to two weeks; its dark color will form as storage time increases [2].


Usage

Thyme has many uses, but mainly as seasoning in soups, fish, meat and poultry [2]. It has also been used in the following areas [4]:

  • flavoring agent
  • culinary herb
  • herbal medicine
  • processed for essential oil, extracts, oleoresins, dried leaves
  • decorative herb used for culinary art

Thyme is primarily used when dried because fresh herbs have a very short shelf-life.

  • coming soon...


  • 4. Stahl-Biskup, E. et al. (2004) Chapter 19 Thyme. In Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from CRCnetbase: www.crcnetbase.com
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Thyme

Tomatillos

"4017314574_981de13d99.jpg"

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/11133146@N03/4017314574/


Scientific name: Physalis philadelphica [4]


Tomatillos have fruits that are similar to the unripe tomato, but enclosed in a husk. Ripeness is indicated by a yellow colour, but tomatillos are most often used when still green. [5]

Tomatillos belong to the same family as the tomato, with an enhanced citrus aroma compared to the tomato. [5]

Tomatillos have been popular in Mexico and Latin America for a long time. [5] Tomatillos are most commonly used as a flavour enhancement to dishes and to stimulate appetite. They are also a favourite ingredient to include in salsas. [4]


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: about 10 years, on/off


Raised like the tomato, but easier to grow than the tomato, tomatillos need no protection from rain, and grow well at warm temperatures. [6]

The growing conditions for tomatillos are listed below:

  • Soil: Moderately fertile soil is required. [6]
  • Sunlight: Full sun exposure is needed. [6]
  • Water: Regular watering will ensure that plants continually produce fruit. [6]
  • Planting: Have plants spaced approximately 1.0-1.2 metres (3-4') apart as the plant spreads. [6]
  • Harvest: Length of harvest may last up to 2 months as fruits on the plant ripens unevenly. [2] For tomatillos used in salsa verde, harvest tomatillos while they are still green and their colour is just starting to lighten up toward the end near the blossom. For fresh eating, tomatillos are sweetest in flavour when they have turned yellow and the husk splits. [6]


Tomatillos grow best in the warm season, which includes mid-spring, late spring, early summer, and mid-summer. [6]


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 34g (1 medium raw)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 11
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 0mg  %
Total Carbohydrate 2g 1%
   Dietary Fiber 1g 4%
   Sugars 14g
Protein 300mg
Vitamine A 0%
Vitamine C 8%
Calcium 0%
Iron 1%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Information based on Canadian Nutrient File [1][3]

Recipes and other culinary uses of tomatillos can be found listed here:

Green Salsa by The Canadian Living Test Kitchen

Ingredients

  • 1/3cup cup(75 mL) chopped drained canned tomatillos
  • 1 seeded and minced jalapeño pepper
  • 2 tablespoons ( 25 mL) minced green onion, white part only
  • 4 teaspoons (18 mL) chopped fresh coriander or fresh parsley
  • 2 teaspoons (10 mL) lime juice
  • 1 pinch of granulated sugar
  • 1 pinch of salt

Mix in large bowl and enjoy.


Corn & Tomatillo Soup [4]

Ingredients

  • 1½ cup tomatillos
  • 1½ cup onion, chopped
  • 2 garlic gloves, diced
  • 1 tsp margarine
  • 3¾ cup whole kernel corn
  • 1 cup frozen peas
  • 4 cups low sodium chicken broth
  • 1 Tbsp cilantro, chopped
  • 4 oz diced green chilies
  • ¼ cup spinach, chopped
  • 1 tsp sugar

Methods

  • Sautè tomatillos, onion and garlic in with margarine for five minutes.
  • Remove to food processor and add peas and cilantro. Puree to chunky.
  • Pour in pan and add chicken stock, diced green chilies, chopped spinach, corn, and sugar.
  • Heat and serve.


Storage

  • Fresh, non-peeled tomatillos can be stored for up to two weeks in the refrigerator, and are best stored inside paper bags. Fresh fruits without the husk last about 3 weeks under refrigeration in sealed plastic bags. Freezing the peeled tomatillos is another option. [5]

Selection

  • Fresh tomatillos should have intact, tightly fit husks. The husk is light brown in colour. [5]

Other Uses

  • An infusion of the husk could be added to tamale dough to improve the spongy-like consistency. Tomatillos could also be used to enhance the flavour of white rice and to tenderize red meats. [4]


  • 2. Gough, B. (2008). Cherry, ground. In An encyclopedia of small fruit. Retrieved April 3 2010 from CRCnetbase: www.crcnetbase.com
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Tomatillos

Tomatoes

successful-tomato-harvest.jpg

Photo by Suat Eman

Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: not available (currently grown at UBC farm in the greenhouse and outdoors)


Latin Name: Solanum lycopersicum


Soil

  • Tomatoes grow best in a moisture-retentive, well-drained soil. The addition of well-rotted organic matter helps growth and tomatoes do well when the soil’s pH is 5.5-7. Very rich soil or soil with too much nitrogen causes the plants to produce more leaves at the expense of fruit production.

Planting

  • Tomatoes can be grown in heated or unheated greenhouses or outdoors. When growing outdoors or in unheated greenhouses, it is best to begin seeding plants 6-8 weeks before the last frost is due. Tomato plants must be “hardened-off”: they must be gradually exposed to their new growing conditions. Hardening off typically lasts for 7 to 10 days.
  • Once there is no danger of frost, seedlings can be planted in a warm, sheltered position, ideally against a sunny wall. Tomato plants require approximately 6-8 hours of full sunlight each day. Seedlings should be transplanted when they are 6-8”. Vine tomato varieties can be supported with stakes and twine and should be planted 15-18” apart. Bush varieties should be planted 18-24” apart and dwarf varieties should be planted 10-12” apart. Generally speaking, closer spacing produces earlier crops while wider spacing results in slightly higher yields.
  • Tomatoes grown in greenhouses are grown in a similar fashion. The seedlings are planted inside the greenhouse and similar spacing is followed. Greenhouse tomatoes tend to do better as they are more protected from weather extremes and other insects and pests.

Harvesting

  • Tomatoes should be harvested as soon as they ripen: about 7-8 weeks after planting for bush types and 10-12 weeks for other varieties. To harvest, break the stem just above the joint of the fruit. Tomatoes can be harvested while still green and be ripened indoors.

Storage

  • Tomatoes are best stored at room temperature uncovered. For best flavour, never refrigerate tomatoes. Tomatoes will last up to a week in a plastic bag in the refrigerator but the flavour significantly deteriorates. If a tomato is not yet ripe, place it in a paper bag with a ripe banana or apple. The ethylene produced by the ripe apple or banana helps to ripen tomatoes.


Crops are sown in the spring and harvested in mid to late summer.


  • Tomatoes supply Vitamin C and are the single most important source of lycopene. Lycopene is an antioxidant that makes tomatoes red and has been shown to scavenge free radicals. Free radicals are a result of our body’s metabolic processes and have degenerative effects on cell walls and DNA. Antioxidants, such as lycopene, neutralize free radicals which helps protect our bodies from degenerative diseases such as cancer.
  • Tomatoes are also a good source of many other vitamins, minerals, and fiber!
Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 250 ml slices (190g)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 34
Total Fat 0.4g 1%
   Saturated Fat 0.1g 1%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 10mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 7g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 2g 8%
   Sugars 5g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 8%
Vitamine C 40%
Calcium 2%
Iron 4%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet


Nutrient data from the Canadian Nutrient File

  • Tomatoes are very versatile: they can be eaten raw, broiled, baked, crushed into a sauce, or canned. Tomatoes make up a large part of many diets, most notably the Mediterranean diet. Tomatoes are found in a variety of dishes, from a Greek salad to an Italian pasta dish, to an American Hamburger.


Ratatouille (from Mrs. Sandra Lauzon)

Ingredients

  • 1 Eggplant (approximately 1½ pounds)
  • 2 tsp. Salt
  • 6 tbsp. Olive Oil
  • 1 small zucchini, sliced
  • 2 cups Onions, sliced
  • 1 medium Red Pepper, sliced
  • 1 medium Green Pepper, sliced
  • 2 large cloves of Garlic, mashed
  • 6 medium Tomatoes, peeled, seeded, cored, and quartered
  • 1 tsp. Sugar
  • 4 tbsp. Parsley, finely chopped
  • 4 tbsp. Basil, finely chopped
  • Salt and Pepper to taste


Method

  • 1. Peel and coarsely chop eggplant, place in a large bowl.
  • 2. Sprinkle eggplant with salt, let stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. Remove eggplant pieces from bowl, pat dry on using a paper towel.
  • 3. In a large frying pan, heat oil. Add eggplant, zucchini, onion, peppers, and garlic. Sauté until onions are golden brown. Transfer mixture into 4 quart oven safe casserole dish.
  • 4. In the frying pan, add the tomatoes, sugar, herbs, salt and pepper. Cook over medium heat uncovered for 20 minutes.
  • 5. While the tomato mixture cooks, pre-heat the oven to 350°F.
  • 6. Add the tomato mixture to the eggplant mixture in the oven safe dish. Bake for 40 minutes until the vegetable are tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed.


  • Ratatouille can be served hot or cold, as a side dish or a sauce for pasta or rice. It will last in the refrigerator for up to 1 week in a tightly sealed container or will last in the freezer for several months.


Medicinal Uses

  • Many believe tomatoes reduce the risk of cancer. In the past, tomatoes were used to treat liver and kidney complaints and were thought to relieve constipation. Other doctors believe tomatoes aggravate arthritis.
  • The leaves and stems of the tomato plant are poisonous and should not be consumed.


Information not available


Biggs, M., McVicar, J., & Flowerdew, B. (2006). Vegetables, herbs, and fruit: An illustrated encyclopedia. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books.

Health Canada. (2008). Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Retrieved from http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp

McGee, H. (2004). On food and cooking: The science and lore of the kitchen. New York, NY: Scribner.

Ontario Processing Vegetable Growers. (2010). Tomatoes & health. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from http://www.opvg.org/health-wellness/tomatoes.aspx.

Reader’s Digest. (2009). Key ingredients: Tomatoes. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from http://www.readersdigest.ca/food/cms/xcms/key-ingredients--tomatoes_1128_a.html.


  • Almost 95% of our daily intake of lycopene comes from tomatoes and tomato-based products. Lycopene is also found in watermelon, pink grapefruit, and papaya.
  • Tomatoes are low in sodium and contain almost no fat.
  • A tomato is almost 95% water.
  • Tomatoes have relatively low sugar content, similar to cabbage and Brussels sprouts.
source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Tomatoes

Zucchini

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Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/70223579@N00/3806424390/


Scientific names: Cucurbita pepo, family of Cucurbitaceae [3]

Type: Zucchini (summer) [3]


Squashes are native plants to North America, having been planted for thousands of years. Early explorers of North America then took squash back to Europe where it was cultivated. Zucchini was first produced in Italy in the 1920s, as a type of summer squash [4].

Zucchini is a subspecies of Cucurbita pepo, a long and dark green summer squash of the ground family, in great abundance in North America home gardens and supermarkets. The creeping vine has five-lobed leaves, tendrils, and large yellow flowers [5].

There are many different varieties of zucchini, but all are green and shaped like a cucumber, and not distinguishable to the average consumer [4].


Years grown at UBC Farm/LFSOG: about 10 years

  • A mixed variety of green, yellow, and romanesco is grown at the UBC Farm.


Zucchini is monoecious, producing male and female flowers on the same plant. It grows easily in nearly all regions of California. It is a short-seasoned crop compared to other Cucurbit fruits (ex. Melons and cucumbers). Zucchini can withstand temperatures up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, but doesn't grow well below 60 degrees Fahrenheit [3].

Zucchini grows on bushy, non-vining plants with large, dark green, mature leaves that have silver-grey splotches and streaks. During growing season, the ratio of male and female flowers on a plant is 3:1. Only female flowers can bear fruit, and plentiful (honey) bees are required for pollination. Zucchini is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds [3].

The fruit grows from the base of the female flower on a short stem, growing up to 1 inch per day [3].

  • Height: 24-36 in. (60-90 cm)
  • Spacing: 36-48 in. (90-120 cm)
  • Days to Maturity: 41 to 50 days
  • Mature Skin Color: Medium Green
  • Size: Less than 1 pound (0.5 kg)
  • Habit: Bush
  • Seed Type: Hybrid

Water regularly; do not overwater [3].

Soil pH requirements: 5.6 to 6.0 (acidic), 6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic), 6.6 to 7.5 (neutral) [3].


Zucchini is available in the summer, being a warm season crop.


Nutrition Facts/Valeur Nutritive
Serving Size: 131g (1 cup, chopped)
Amount Per Serving  %Daily Value*
Calories 21
Total Fat 0g 0%
   Saturated Fat 0g 0%
   Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 13mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 5g 2%
   Dietary Fiber 1.4g 6%
   Sugars 2.3g
Protein 2g
Vitamine A 1%
Vitamine C 36%
Calcium 2%
Iron 4%
* % Daily value based on a 2000 calorie diet
  • A good source of vitamin C
  • A source of manganese, potassium, and vitamin B6

Vegetable Kabobs and Dip (makes 32 tastes at 1 stick each)

Ingredients

  • 8 raw zucchini, sliced
  • 8 raw yellow squash, sliced
  • 4 tomatoes cut into eights
  • 32 mushrooms, whole
  • 2 cups low-fat vegetable dip
  • 16 wooden kabob sticks, halved
  • Serving tray and napkins

Directions

  • Place zucchini, squash, tomatoes, and mushrooms on sticks, alternating colors.
  • Arrange on a tray and drizzle with vegetable dip. Serve with napkins.


Zucchini Ricotta Frittata from Simply Recipe


Storage

  • Zucchini can be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature. Do not freeze the whole zucchini because it has high water content and will turn to mush [4].

Usage

  • Raw - zucchini can be eaten raw in salad or on vegetable trays. [4]
  • Cooking - zucchini is good in stir-fry, steamed, fried or grilled. It is a good addition to a grilled meal and mixes well with other grilled vegetables. Because of its high water content, zucchini should not be overcooked as it will fall apart. Zucchini is also popular in soup. [4]
  • Baking - it is often added to bread and muffins to make a healthy treat. Like most summer squashes, zucchini does not bake well by itself. [4]
  • Freezing - Slice in 1-inch pieces, blanch for 3 minutes, place in freezer-safe containers and freeze. [4]


  • coming soon...


source: http://wiki.ubc.ca/Cropedia:Zucchini

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